Flour is an incredibly popular product. It is used for baking bakery products, production of pasta and confectionery, cooking pancakes, dumplings, dumplings, pasties, compound feed production.
Flour producers have a wide market. Flour is bought by bakeries and bakeries, manufacturers of semi-finished products, catering, shops, etc. The cost of wholesale purchase of flour is about 10 thousand rubles per ton. Retail price varies by region.
For the production of flour, rye, oats, corn, rice, millet, barley are used, but the most popular flour is wheat, so we will examine in detail the production of wheat flour, although in general the technology is not much different when using other materials.
To start a successful flour production, you need to find a suitable grain supplier, since how good a product you get will depend on the quality of the grain. For the production of bread flour, soft wheat is used, for the production of pasta - durum. When choosing wheat, they are also guided by its variety. Zoned wheat varieties are divided into strong, medium (valuable) and weak. Strong wheat flour gives high quality bread, which is distinguished by its large volume and excellent dimensional stability, since the dough retains firmness and elasticity well. Usually strong wheat is used for sorting to grain with low baking properties, since it can significantly improve the quality of flour. From medium-strength wheat, high-quality bread is produced that complies with GOST, and weak wheat is used for bread baking only on condition of sorting. The properties that grain of strong and valuable varieties should have are listed in GOST 9353-85 "Wheat. Technical conditions" or in GOST 9353-90.
There is another classification that must be considered when choosing wheat. Depending on the color shade and vitreous, the grain is divided into five types: type I - spring red-grain, type II - spring hard (durum), type III - spring white-grain, type IV - winter red-grain, type V - winter white-grain. For the production of baking flour, grains of types I and IV are used, type II - for the production of pasta.
The cost of grain depends on productivity and amounts to approximately 6 thousand rubles per ton of baking wheat on agricultural exchanges. Durum wheat may be cheaper - about 5000 rubles.
Preparation of grain for grinding begins even at the elevator, where the wheat is cleaned of impurities, fodder grain products are separated, grinding lots are sorted based on the decisive indicator in determining the hydrothermal processing regimes - vitreous. Soft wheat grains have a powdery opaque structure, and durum cells are surrounded by thick amorphous layers of proteins that give them transparency. Vitreous grains are characterized by high density and strength. At the next stage, the surface of the grain is treated with dry and wet methods: first dust and fruit shells are removed by scrubbing and brushing machines, then wheat is entolentor sterilized. After cleaning, the grain needs hydrothermal treatment, then the grain is crushed, large and medium grains are ground, then the products of grain formation and grinding are ground, grinding of similar products of grain formation and grinding is ground. The final stage is the formation and control of finished products.
After grinding, the flour should lie down for about two weeks, during this time its acidity increases, humidity, color changes.
The quality of flour depends on several components, approximately equally affecting the final product. This is the quality of equipment, the quality of grain and the proper adjustment of equipment for a specific grain.
Grinding grain can be simple or complex.
Wallpaper (whole grain) flour is obtained by simple grinding. Whole grain flour is considered very healthy and is a popular dietary product. With simple grinding, flour from different systems is not divided into varieties and mixed together. The yield of wheat flour - 96 percent, rye - 95.
With complex grinding, flour is sorted by size and quality. Flour from different systems is mixed in certain proportions. So get different grades of flour. Grinding can be one, two and three grades.
With one-grade grinding, flour of the first or second grade is produced. With double-grade grinding, flour of the first and second grades is obtained simultaneously. The total yield is 75-80 percent. With three-grade grinding, flour of the highest, first and second grades is obtained. The most common and actively used variety in baking is the first one.
Various equipment is used for flour milling: silos, control and transport devices for storing and forming grinding batches, machines for separating impurities, devices for treating grain surfaces and dosing, separators, roller mills, sieve machines, scouring and brushing machines, devices for weight dosing and mixing of components, filling machines.
The cost of the mill equipment depends on the manufacturer and the volume of flour output. Russian equipment, as a rule, costs less than imported equipment. There is an opportunity to save by buying used equipment that has undergone major repairs. If repairs were made at the factory, the company provides a one-year warranty. Such equipment is called renovation.
The cost of a domestic mill with a productivity of 380 kilograms per hour is about a million rubles. Such equipment is relatively compact in size and does not require large production areas. The reinvention option will cost almost half the price. A mill producing 800 kg / h costs 2 million rubles, 1800 kg / h - 11 million. The mill complex includes roller mills, sifters, a sieve machine, a knot of knockout, grinding machines, an accumulation and unloading unit of bran. The total yield of flour, depending on the type of equipment and grain quality, is 70-80 percent, premium flour - 55-75 percent, first grade - 15-45 percent. A unit for cleaning and preparing grain can be bought for 600 thousand rubles (per 500 kg). This device cleans the grain from large and small impurities, moisturizes and balances the grain. If large volumes of production are expected, then the cost of equipment increases to 1300 000 rubles (1500 kg). Grain-cutting machine costs about 100, 000 rubles.
A flour mill should have not only mill equipment, but also warehouses for grain and flour that meet production requirements, as well as a laboratory control system for the production process. The costs of providing the flour mill with all the necessary components will be no less than the cost of all equipment, but they cannot be avoided.
The raw material warehouse can be either a silo or an elevator and should allow the reception, separate storage and supply of raw materials. The silo with a conical bottom does not require manual cleaning after emptying, as it empties completely. The storage capacity should ensure uninterrupted operation of the equipment for 10 days.
The flour storage capacity also needs to be calculated for 6-7 days of uninterrupted production.
Starting investments for the opening of its flour milling production with a yield of 20 tons per day, according to the most conservative estimates, will be at least 8-10 million rubles. Profitability of production is about 15-20 percent.
In order to produce a high-quality product, conscientious qualified personnel are required, since the production process is influenced by a huge number of various factors and it is impossible to entrust control to even the most modern machines. The milling technologist is also called cereal. His salary in the capital and regions varies greatly and can range from 35, 000 to 85 thousand rubles.
It is better to create a flour mill in places of grain production due to the ever-increasing cost of transporting grain and the cheapness of production facilities and labor in the regions. The Russian market is dominated by regional manufacturers, supplying their products to the surrounding areas. These enterprises strive to minimize the costs of raw materials and energy, quickly respond to changes in demand and rely on the production of strong assortment positions.