Since 2010, sales of baby food in Russia have grown significantly, which is associated with an increase in the birth rate in the country and an increase in the consumption of goods per child. On the market, all types of baby food are divided into two segments: "breast milk substitutes" and complementary foods. Apart are the products of medical and dietary nutrition for children. Complementary foods occupy 79% of the baby food market, which is not surprising since they are present in the diet of a child under 3 years old. The absolute leader among them is baby puree (27.1%). "Substitutes for human milk", respectively, occupy 21% of the market.
Among baby food products, the following groups can be distinguished:
- milk-based mixtures . There are dry, liquid, fresh, sour milk. Partially adapted mixtures and adapted, as close as possible in composition to human milk, are isolated. The first are for children aged 0 to 6 months, the second - from 6 to 12.
- fruit and vegetable based mixtures (canned fruit, berry, vegetable and mixed juices and mashed potatoes, canned vegetables, cereals and meat, and vegetables, cereals and fish). According to the degree of grinding, there are homogenized, finely ground, coarsely ground. For children aged 3-4 months.
- cereal-based mixtures (flour (from various cereals) for baby food, dry milk cereals, instant cookies and pasta). For children aged 4.5-5 months.
- mixtures based on meat and fish (meat, meat and vegetable and canned fish). By the degree of grinding, there are coarsely ground (for children over 9 months of age), puree (from 7 months) and homogenized (from 5 months). There are canned meat of groups A and B: A - mass fraction of meat raw materials not more than 55, offal no more than 30, oil or fat no more than 5, cereals no more than 5, starch or flour no more than 3; group B - meat raw materials not more than 35, oil or fat not more than 8, vegetable or milk protein not more than 5, cereals not more than 10, vegetable components - not more than 30.
The production of baby food is a responsible and time-consuming task, although quite profitable: in 2011, the average cost per 1 kg of food was more than 500 rubles.
Types and cost of raw materials
- Dairy raw materials. Use whole and skim milk, milk powder (whole and skim), cream, sour cream and cow butter. The average price of milk on the market is 13 rubles per liter.
- Grain raw materials. This includes flour and various types of cereals (semolina, oat, wheat, buckwheat, rice). The cost of cereals: wheat 4-10 thousand rubles per ton, peas 6.5 - 10 thousand rubles, buckwheat 12 thousand rubles, corn 6-8.5 thousand rubles, oats - 6 thousand rubles, semolina - 15 -16 rub / kg.
- Fruit and vegetable raw materials. Almost all types of vegetables, fruits and berries are used. The most popular types are apples, plums, peaches, apricots, citrus fruits, pumpkin, zucchini, blackcurrant, cherry, sweet cherry, wild rose. Prices for fruits and vegetables constantly fluctuate depending on the season. Here are the approximate wholesale prices: potatoes - 4.5 - 6 rubles / kg, beets - 4, 5 - 6 rubles / kg, pumpkin - 2 - 5 rubles / kg, carrots - 7-8 rubles / kg, apples - 18-40 rub / kg, pears - 30-60 rub / kg.
- Meat raw materials. Use various types of meat (pork, beef, lamb) and poultry. Offal (liver, tongue) is also used. Price: beef - 115 rubles / kg, pork - 124 rubles / kg, lamb - from 230 to 270 rubles / kg, chicken - about 75 rubles / kg.
- Fish raw materials. This includes various types of oceanic, marine and freshwater fish. The most common are pike perch (about 130 rubles / kg), cod (83-88 rubles / kg), tuna (130-200 rubles / kg), hake (100-120 rubles / kg), carp (75-110 rubles / kg) )
Technology and equipment
The general technological process for the manufacture of infant formulas includes the following steps: receiving and checking raw materials, cleaning and preparing raw materials, mixing and dosage, packaging and packaging of the product.
The production of each type of infant formula has its own characteristics.
1. Dairy mixes.
Adapted mixtures consist of 60% of whey proteins and 40% of casein. Partially adapted milk formulas are made from dried cow's milk.
In the production of dry mixes, raw milk goes through several stages of processing. The entire production process can be divided into two groups:
but. Processes for processing raw materials before drying.
b. Drying and all subsequent operations.
but. After receiving the raw material, it is cleaned, sorted and cooled for storage. Immediately before production, it is heated and separated. Next, the milk is subjected to pasteurization, normalization by mass fraction of fat and homogenization. Solutions of iron sulfate and milk sugar are added to the raw material, heated and refined. Then the mixture is subjected to heat treatment at a temperature of 105 ± 10 ° C, vegetable oil with fat-soluble vitamins and solutions of water-soluble vitamins are added, after which the mixture is homogenized.
b. The raw materials are dried in a spray dryer. Then it is dried in three stages: in the first section, from 20 to 40 ° C, in the second - from 20 to 40, in the third - from 10 to 12 ° C.
The finished mixture is mixed with other components (powdered sugar, casein) and packaged.
There are also low-lactose mixtures freed from milk sugar. They are produced by mixing dry low-lactose base with sugar and adding a source of iron and vitamins. Various extracts are also added, for example, low sugar molasses or malt.
Milk consumption is 8704-8713 kg per ton of dry product.
Store (according to GOST) at a temperature of 1 to 10 ° C and relative humidity not higher than 75% for no more than 6 months from the day of production.
In the production of fermented milk products for children, raw milk is fermented by adding thermophilic or mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, etc. Yogurt is fermented for 4-8 hours, kefir - 9-13 hours, cottage cheese - 10-14 hours. Unlike adult dairy products, children are additionally fortified and subjected to thorough microfiltration. They also add a larger number of beneficial bacteria. The mass fraction of fat is also less: for milk and dairy products - not more than 3.5-4%, for curd products - not more than 5-9%. The share of sugar in fermented milk and curd products is not more than 7%, in milk drinks and cocktails. - no more than 5%.
The line for the production of dairy-based children's products includes:
- separators. Divides cream with medium fat into high-fat (about 80-200 thousand rubles);
- vacuum deodorizing installations. Removes odors and smacks (about 625 thousand rubles);
- baths for normalization. They establish the desired mass fraction of moisture (150 thousand rubles);
- a long pasteurization bath (from 150 thousand to 1 million rubles, depending on size);
- homogenizer-plasticizer. They give the oil a uniform structure and moisture distribution (from 340 to 800 thousand rubles);
- vacuum evaporation plant (250-300 thousand rubles);
2. Fruit and vegetable mixtures.
The first stage is preparatory. Raw materials are sorted on roller and belt conveyors, removing rotten, crumpled, infected fruits. When preparing raw materials, all unnecessary parts of the fruit (peel, seeds, seeds, twigs) are removed, and several methods can be used. The chemical method is used to remove the skin of the fruit, for which they are placed in a hot (80-90 ° C) solution of caustic soda. The steam-thermal method is the processing of raw materials with hot steam under pressure. Various root crops (potatoes, carrots, beets) are treated in this way, they are also peeled in a simple mechanical way. The refrigeration method is the most expensive due to expensive equipment, it consists in freezing raw materials and removing peeled peels.
After purification, the raw materials are washed to remove dirt, pesticides. Further, the raw material is subjected to grinding (crushing), which is best carried out in a steam environment, which preserves vitamins and minerals. The crushed raw materials are boiled (blanched): various types of raw materials are distributed in separate chambers, the desired mode is set and sealed. When boiling berries add water. In a washing machine with a hole diameter of 1.2–1.5 and 0.7–0.8 mm, the raw material is ground to puree. Next, the raw materials are mixed according to the recipe, sent for deaeration (removal of air from the product) and heated, if necessary, subjected to homogenization. The mass is heated to 85? C, loaded into a sterilized container and sealed. Mashed potatoes, nectars, creams are sterilized at 100 ° C for 20 minutes, desserts - at 100 ° C for 45 minutes. When processing is lost about 30-40% of the mass of raw materials.
Requirements for raw materials, packaging, storage are in GOST R 52475-2005 and GOST R 52476-2005.
For the production of mashed potatoes, juices, desserts from fruit and vegetable raw materials, the following equipment will be needed:
- washing machine (200-500 thousand rubles);
- steam-thermal unit (240-750 thousand rubles);
- crusher for fruits and vegetables (50 thousand rubles)
- wiping machine (300-400 thousand rubles);
- blancher (50 - 100 thousand rubles);
Such a line can produce 1, 500 kg / hour (6, 000 cans / hour).
3. Grain mixtures.
Making baby cereals involves several stages. First, the grain is cleaned of impurities in magnetic installations. Then they are passed through vibrating sieves for control screening. Before sifting semolina and wheat groats are subjected to steam treatment on a screw apparatus. In a dry grinding mill, the grits are crushed to a particle size of 500 microns and sifted again.
Next, the product is sent to a mixing and dosing station, where, according to a given recipe, the components of the future cereal are mixed (flour from cereals, milk powder, sugar, fruit and vitamin powders). On an electromagnetic separator, the mixtures are checked for excess impurities. Further, the product is packaged in various containers: boxes, from cardboard, coated on the inside with polyethylene, paper bags with an inner foil bag, cardboard and tin cans.
Specifications and requirements for grain-based children's products are in GOST R 52405-2005.
The line for the production of cereals from various types of grain includes:
- grain drying machine. Designed to remove flower, fruit and seed membranes from the surface of grains (from 100 to 250 thousand rubles);
- grinding unit (about 140 thousand rubles);
- sifter. Used to separate bulk materials into fractions by size (from 12 thousand rubles);
- screw dryer (about 270 thousand rubles);
- an aspirator for cleaning cereals from small impurities (about 75 thousand rubles);
4. Canned meat and fish.
At the initial stage of the production of canned food, raw materials are prepared and processed: the meat is lived, sorted, cleaned of bones, unnecessary organs. The fish is thawed, if necessary, remove unnecessary elements and cut into pieces weighing 80-100 g. Prepare auxiliary raw materials: butter, seasonings, vegetable raw materials. Then the raw materials are cut and crushed, mixed, wiped three times: through sieves with a hole diameter of 1.5-2 mm in the first machine, 0.8-1 in the second, and 0.4-0.5 mm in the third. Next, the raw materials are filtered by strainers with holes with a diameter of 0.7-0.8 mm, blanched, subjected to homogenization and deaeration. After all operations, the product is packaged and sterilized at 120 ° C for 50 - 70 minutes. Requirements for storage, raw materials and products can be found in GOST R 51770-2001.
The following is required for the production of meat and fish foods:
- defrosting chambers (about 300 thousand rubles);
- meat deboning plants (manual - about 100 thousand rubles, automatic - from 200 to 600 thousand rubles);
- a machine for chopping meat (about 160 thousand rubles);
- a machine for cutting chickens (about 120 thousand rubles);
- equipment for mixing and salting meat raw materials (from 120 to 350 thousand rubles);
- blancher (50 - 100 thousand rubles);
- refrigerators (from 120 thousand rubles);
Also, to establish a common technological process, the following auxiliary equipment will be needed:
- machine for filling, dosing and filling of raw materials (1-1.6 million rubles);
- seaming machine (from 250 thousand to 1, 4 million rubles);
- an autoclave (from 75 thousand to 1.5 million rubles);
- washing machine for containers (about 500 thousand rubles);
- labeling machine (about 200 thousand rubles);
- 10 cubic meter tank m. (about 600 thousand rubles, plus a control panel of 45 thousand rubles);
- pump (from 19 to 55 thousand rubles);
- receiving capacity of 1000 liters (about 180 thousand rubles);
- belt conveyor (from 23 thousand rubles per linear meter);
- loaders and rockers;
- carts and saws;
The plant producing baby food must meet a number of sanitary and fire safety requirements. The company must have a developed ventilation system. The workshop requires natural, mechanical, mixed ventilation or air conditioning in accordance with hygiene requirements. It also provides for the supply and exhaust mechanical ventilation in combination, if necessary, with local exhaust ventilation. Domestic premises, a bathroom, laboratories, warehouses should have separate ventilation systems. The air entering the room must pass through oil and other fine filters (source SanPiN 08/18/2019.1940-05). Keep food away from heaters and direct sunlight.
When you open a business for the production of any food product, you need to obtain a certificate of state registration or a sanitary and epidemiological conclusion. To do this, collect the following package of documents:
- registration application,
- normative and technical documentation, on the basis of which production processes are carried out,
- instructions, annotations, certified copies of the SEZ,
- consumer label
- test results for products (physico-chemical, radiological, organoleptic, etc.),
- Sampling Act
- copy of the trademark.
Organization of production and investment
To open an established production of all types of baby food for a beginner is an overwhelming task. Therefore, you should start with the production of products that do not have the most labor-intensive technological process, long shelf life and are in great demand. This solution will protect against crisis situations. Opening a business for the production of mashed potatoes and milk mixtures has great prospects, since equipment for the production of these types of goods is suitable for the production of canned meat and sour-milk products.
The initial investment in equipment at the opening of the production of mashed potatoes, juices and milk mixtures will be about 7-8 million. For the production of 90 tons of mashed potatoes (360, 000 cans weighing 250 grams, about 3000 cans per hour) per month, about 130 tons of raw materials will be needed, the cost will be about 3, 5 million rubles. Per ton of milk mixture, the consumption of raw materials will be about 114 thousand rubles. The average cost of a jar of mashed potatoes (250 g) in the market is about 20 rubles, and milk formula (400 g) is about 130 rubles.
There are many companies on the baby food market that have already established themselves as manufacturers of quality products, so for active sales you need to develop products in several areas. First, you should expand the range and use the opportunity to release new products. For example, it would be a good idea to release a product line for children 2-4 years old who need to be accustomed to eating not only mashed food, but food in pieces. Secondly, it is worth remembering the packaging, which should be airtight and convenient. It is better to pack in small jars. The container should be equipped with spoons and tubes.
The main sales channels are not only supermarkets, but also specialized stores for goods for children.
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