Ketchup is a universal tomato sauce for any meat dish, whether it be chops, sausages or kebabs. More than 50% of the population in Russia uses this product constantly, fortunately, the market offers ketchups that are varied in taste and quality.
By the method of production and processing of ketchup are:
- sterilized, including by the method of hot filling in a hermetically sealed container (canned food);
- unsterilized (with preservative).
The composition of ketchup is divided into four categories:
- "Extra" - made from fresh tomatoes, tomato paste or mash. The content of tomato paste should be at least 40%.
- the highest is the same raw material, but stabilizers, thickeners, flavorings, flavoring additives are added here. The amount of tomato paste is at least 20%.
- first category. They are made from concentrated tomato products, fruit and vegetable purees. To improve the taste add more spices (or flavors). It is also possible the presence of dyes, thickeners, stabilizers and flavoring ingredients. Tomato paste at least 15%.
- second category. The composition is almost similar to ketchups of the first category. Tomato paste at least 15% (source GOST 52141-2003).
By taste, ketchups are distinguished:
- barbecue, etc .;
The process of preparing ketchup involves several operations.
First prepare the raw materials. Fresh tomatoes are washed using two methods:
- if the degree of earthy, plant impurities exceeds 15%, use the technology of four-time washing, with the addition of disinfectant solutions (water consumption for washing 10 tons of tomatoes is on average 10 m3).
- if the degree of pollution is less than 15%, hydrotransporters with traps are used to trap mechanical impurities (water consumption is at least 2-3 l / kg of raw material).
After washing, the raw materials are inspected (removal of unsuitable tomatoes - moldy, beaten, green) and sorted (maturity selection): the tomatoes move along the conveyor belt at a speed of 0.05-0.1 m / s, and the workers select them. About 10 tomatoes per second are sorted on one track. They also use machine sorting on photoelectronic sorters. Then the tomatoes go to the calibration machines, where they are divided into batches of uniform size. Types of machines: drum, cable, roller, screw, roller and disk. Then the tomatoes are peeled, sunflower seeds, sepals, either by the steam-thermal or chemical method (treatment with caustic soda), and then crushed.
Further, tomato paste is made from raw materials by normalization:
- rough rubbing on a washing machine with a hole diameter of 5 mm sieves,
- heating to (75 ± 5)? C on tubular or plate heaters,
- Secondary rubbing occurs first on a sieve with a diameter of 1.2 mm, where the remnants of seeds and peels are removed. Then on the second sieve (0.4 mm), wipe until mashed.
- waste compaction, after which humidity should not exceed 65 ± 3%.
- sterilization of tomato paste. For it, multi-way tubular heat exchangers are used: they are heated to 125 ° C, held for 70 s, cooled to 85 ° C.
- paste concentration - occurs by evaporation of moisture.
- cooking in vacuum evaporation plants, which ensures the preservation of vitamins and coloring substances.
Finally, ketchup is cooked. Spices are added to the tomato paste (finely ground in the form of an aqueous or vinegar extract, as well as in the form of CO2 extracts) and preservatives in unsterilized ketchups. Then ketchups from concentrated tomatoes are boiled for 15-20 minutes, from fresh ones - no more than 45 minutes. After cooking, the product is packaged, sealed with varnished metal lids and sterilized at 100 ° C for 25 minutes. Consumer packaging should not exceed 1.0 cubic meters. dm in volume. By agreement with the customer, a volume of not more than 10.0 cubic meters is allowed. dm. Usually packaged in containers 0.2-1.0 liters. Inadequate sterilization can lead to defects such as flat souring, bombing, rust and deformation on the packaging.
Many novice manufacturers pass the stage of production of tomato paste, purchasing it. This allows you to almost halve the cost of equipment.
Ketchup recipe is determined by technologists. Ketchups must comply with the standards given in GOST 52141-2003.
Mass fraction (%)
dry soluble substances
not less than 14%
not less than 15
no more than 2.5
no more than 0, 05
no more than 0.1
no more than 0, 05
Foreign impurities in ketchups are not allowed.
Equipment and raw materials
The ketchup production line is as follows:
1. The site of preparation of raw materials.
- receiving capacity (about 180 thousand rubles);
- scales (25-70 thousand rubles);
- a water tank (about 100-500 thousand rubles., plus a control panel 45 thousand rubles.);
- a dosing pump for water - (from 19 to 55 thousand rubles);
- washing machine (300-500 thousand);
- calibration machine (150-200 thousand rubles);
2. Cooking site for tomato paste and ketchup.
- mixer-mixer (100-300 thousand rubles);
- crusher-seed separator (50 thousand rubles);
- cleaning machine (300-400 thousand rubles);
- multi-way tubular heat exchanger (from 100 to 600 thousand rubles);
- vacuum evaporation unit. Water consumption - 126-284 m3 / h. (230-300 thousand rubles);
- cooling installation;
- a cooking tank with a stirrer (100-150 thousand rubles)
3. The site of bottling and sterilization.
- low-speed vane pump with speed control (about 2 thousand rubles);
- comb homogenizer (340-800 thousand rubles);
- automatic dosing machine (1-1, 6 million rubles);
- a machine for twisting the lids "twist off" (from 250 thousand to 1.4 million rubles);
- autoclave (from 75 thousand to 1, 5 million rubles);
- belt conveyor (from 23 thousand rubles per linear meter);
Line productivity - up to 3000 cans / hour. The required area is at least 400 square meters. m., the ceiling height is at least 3.5 meters. To service the line, about 10-15 people are required.
Raw materials (main):
Tomatoes - the price depends on the season, in the summer they can cost 10 rubles / kg, in the winter - 50 rubles.
Onions - 5-12 rubles / kg;
Bulgarian pepper 14-60 rub / kg;
Acetic acid - 23 rubles / kg;
Chili pepper (ground) - 100 rubles / kg;
Sugar - 20-25 rubles / kg;
Salt - 5 rubles / kg;
A twist-off bank costs about 2-4 rubles. apiece, the cap - 1-2 rubles.
Raw material consumption for tomato paste: 5, 8 tons of tomatoes per ton of product. In the production of 20 tons per month, 46.5 tons of tomatoes (40% of ketchup) will be needed, which means they will cost about 500 thousand rubles. per month. The wholesale price of tomato paste is 28-36 rubles / kg, depending on the manufacturer (China, Ukraine, Russia) and the percentage of solids (tomato paste used as raw material should have at least 25% solids). About 8 tons of pasta will be needed per month, which will cost 300 thousand rubles. Consequently, for profitable production, you should either grow your own tomatoes or buy tomato paste. To reduce costs, it is better to buy tomato paste.
According to GOST-52141, the required storage temperature of ketchup: from 0 ° C to 25 ° C. The finished product warehouse should be well ventilated and have a humidity of not more than 75%. Ketchups in a sterilized glass container are stored for 2 years, unsterilized - 1 year. In any metal container - 1 year. In a package of polymer and combined materials, the shelf life is 6 months.
The initial investment required to open a ketchup business will be about 5-6 million rubles. (taking into account the cost of purchasing equipment, raw materials for 1 ton of product per day, packaging, salary, rental space). Monthly costs of about 1, 3 million rubles. The wholesale price for Russian-made ketchup was set at 20-40 rubles / pc (weight 0.2 l). With the issue and sale of 100 thousand cans per month, the business will pay off in less than six months.
MarketingWhen selling, customer preferences should be considered. Among the tastes, the most popular are “barbecue”, “tomato” and “spicy”. The choice and packaging of ketchup also influences: 47.5% of consumers prefer a glass bottle, 44.7% a plastic bottle, a soft bag, a tube - 10.6%. Seasonality also affects sales: ketchup is bought more in summer.