Chicken eggs are among the most sought after and indispensable foods. They are the main source of protein, contain a large number of valuable trace elements and nutrients. They are used to prepare a large number of traditional dishes, indispensable for diet and sports nutrition. You can organize the production of eggs even at a small poultry farm in the countryside or on a personal subsidiary farm in the suburbs. There will be no problems with their implementation, as the demand for a quality product is stably high (even despite constantly rising prices). However, to open such a business will require some initial investment. The payback period is quite short (from six months). Profitability of production is estimated at 80-100% with competent organization.
Laying hens are one of the most common varieties of chickens in poultry farming. As the name implies, the birds of these breeds are bred in order to get good eggs. Egg varieties differ from other breeds in that their representatives have a less developed instinct for procreation, and they do not lay eggs for the purpose of further hatching. Such chickens have good egg production. On average, a chicken can produce about three hundred eggs per year.
As laying hens, crosses are used, the egg production of which is 10-15% higher than that of purebred chickens. The only drawback: this property is lost when breeding. Therefore, when breeding crosses, you need to take into account the fact that every time you have to buy new chickens. It is also worth noting that in size and weight the eggs of brown crosses come first, but the egg production of brown crosses is still lower than white.
Currently, there are several most popular types of laying hens. These include, for example, Belaya Russkaya, Leghorn, Brama, Kuchinsky Jubilee, Highsex Brown, etc. There are also meat-bearing breeds: Wyandotte, Mrox, Rhode Island, Moscow, Australorp, Poltava clay, etc. From egg White Leghorn breeds are very popular in our country. Chickens of this breed do not eat meat, so they gain little weight - up to two kilograms. Leghorn roosters are also medium-sized. Their weight rarely exceeds two and a half kilograms. However, leghorns are highly productive. At the age of 17-18 weeks, poultry puberty occurs, during which the laying hen is able to lay an average of 220-300 eggs per year. At the same time, the egg mass is 55-58 g, which is slightly lower than that of the broken brown breed. The highest egg production is observed in the first year of the onset of oviposition, then the leghorn is depleted and the number of laid eggs decreases sharply. The color of the shell is white.
Often you can find in agriculture and such a bird as light. But it already requires some care, as in poor conditions the egg laying is noticeably reduced. On the other hand, by the 52nd week, hens begin to lay about 300 eggs per year.
Cross Tetra SL is one of the most highly productive breeds of chickens. Already from 17 weeks, these chickens show 90% egg production. About 300-310 eggs are brought per year. These chickens give eggs that have a brown colored shell.
The Izobraun breed of chickens appeared due to the work of breeders from France. They are very common today, because they can quickly adapt to a variety of conditions and to different climates. From 21 weeks, hens begin to rush and show only 50% of egg production in the first few weeks. But a little later, the average laying hen begins to produce about 320 eggs per year.
One of the best breeds of laying hens is Loman Brown. Achieving puberty in chickens of this breed occurs at the age of 135 days. It is from this period that the increase in the number of laid eggs begins. So, after two weeks, their egg production reaches 50%, and after a month it is 90 percent or more. On average, during puberty (about 52 weeks), Layman Brown produces approximately 300-310 brown eggs. Egg mass can reach quite high rates - 62-64 g.
The Kuchinsky jubilee breed was bred at the Kuchinsky State Poultry Plant. Representatives of this breed are distinguished by the ability to carry more than 180 eggs per year. Under good conditions, this figure can increase to 250 pieces per year. The mass of eggs varies between 58-61 g, the color of the shell is light brown. The laying period of laying hens begins at the age of about five months.
One of the best crosses of the domestic direction of egg breeds is considered
Highsex Brown. The average egg laying period in this breed is the largest. It is 80 weeks, and the number of laid eggs can reach 360 pieces per year. Also, these laying hens are distinguished by a high egg mass (70 g). Therefore, it is this cross that is preferred by many poultry lovers and large factories.
Egg Production Process
When organizing the production of eggs, even at a small poultry farm, it is necessary to strive to fulfill two conditions: to ensure maximum productivity of the poultry and a uniform supply of products throughout the year. This can be achieved under the following conditions: the use of modern highly productive bird crosses; keeping birds in windowless houses to maintain a microclimate; year-round egg production; multiple picking of the herd; work on a closed or open production cycle; application of new resource-saving technologies. These rules are standard and suitable for working not only large poultry farms, but also small farms.
Several key factors influence bird productivity. These include the light factor, ambient temperature, air humidity and its purity. As you know, light has a significant effect on the body of a bird. The development and activity of the sex glands depends on the degree and nature of the illumination. The air temperature in the room where the bird is kept affects heat and gas exchange, metabolism and the intensity of redox processes in her body. The optimal temperature for keeping adults is 16-18 degrees Celsius. High air humidity can lead to a decrease in the digestibility of food nutrients and to a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood. If the room temperature is lower than recommended, and the humidity is too high, this can lead to colds. The optimum humidity in the room where the chickens are kept is 60-70%.
Of great importance is not only the temperature and humidity of the air, but also the content of harmful gases (for example, carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide). These gases are released during the decomposition of litter and litter in the chicken coop. Birds have a higher gas exchange rate than animals. The increased content of carbon dioxide in the air leads to a decrease in appetite in chickens, to general weakness and lethargy, and, as a result, to a decrease in productivity. The maximum permissible concentration of carbon dioxide in the air is 0.25%, ammonia - 15 mg / m 3, hydrogen sulfide - 5 mg / m 3. The degree of dust in the house is also of importance. It rises if the bird is kept on the litter. Dust can be either organic (flour, wood dust, fluff, wool, etc.), or inorganic (metal, mineral). The permissible dust content in the air in the room where the courses are kept is 5-6 mg / m.s.
In summer, the house should be equipped with good fans (volume 7000 cubic meters / hour), since birds that are kept indoors require fresh air of 11 cubic meters. meters / hour.
Finally, the density of birds affects the productive qualities of chickens. The more birds there are in the room, the more often they get sick and the lower their viability.
Laying hens are kept in typical windowless houses. Birds are housed in cell batteries of various designs. The most popular sets of equipment for poultry houses with cell batteries KBN-1, KBN-F-4, BKN-3, BKN-3A, K-P-12. To facilitate poultry care, feed dispensers are used (the best option is a bunker with feeder screws) and nipple drinkers. The degree of illumination in the area of the feeders should be 10-15 lux. Experts also advise to install medication in cell batteries, which are used to feed birds vaccines, veterinary drugs and vitamins. Cell batteries are also equipped with oviducts and transitional sections from the egg collector tape to the egg storage table. The most time-consuming maintenance of the chicken coop is dropping the litter. Full automation of this process is quite expensive, so without manual labor is unlikely to do.
The density of planting chickens in cages depends on the breed. So, for one leggorn should be at least 400 square meters. cm, per representative of the Rhode Island breed - at least 500 square meters. cm.
The industrial herd is equipped with healthy and about the same in terms of live weight young stock. Moreover, experts advise filling the house with chickens of the same age and as soon as possible (up to five days). You cannot keep birds of different ages in the same room.
Breeding chickens and raising chickens
Representatives with the highest egg production, well-fed and healthy are selected for raising chickens for the production of chicken eggs. We repeat that pure breeds of chickens are suitable for breeding, but not crosses, although the latter are more productive. Hens of the parent herd are kept in cages or on the floor. In the first case, sets of cellular equipment KBR-2, K-P-9, K-P-15, K-P-1-1 are used. It is advisable to equip them with perches and feeders for feeding roosters, as well as nests for chickens. Feeding feeders are needed so that the roosters receive a sufficient amount of nutrients: since males approach the feeders later than hens, with limited feeding they do not receive enough feed.
With outdoor maintenance, food distribution equipment, watering systems, perches, nests, egg collection lines, and systems to maintain the microclimate in the house will be required for the equipment of the house. The density of landing birds with such a content should not exceed 4-5 animals per square. floor area meter. The distance between the feeders is at least 10 cm, and between the drinkers - 3 cm per head. Nests have five chickens per nest.
It is extremely important to choose the right eggs for incubation. They should be about 60 grams. Take into account the fact that almost 90% of chickens lay eggs before 12 noon, so it is best to collect them in the morning, but at least four times a day. Eggs for incubation are selected according to their appearance, discarding irregularly shaped specimens, with shell defects and with a mass less than the average for a given breed. Egg freshness can be determined by the appearance of the shell: a fresh egg has a dull surface. Incubators are used to grow young animals up to two weeks old. Quality incubators provide the output of up to 85% of the eggs laid.
Chickens are fed millet, and instead of water they give warmed milk. After a week, greens appear in their diet (primarily nettles). In a month, hens should weigh 200 g, and males - 250 g.
To grow chickens, it is necessary to provide all the necessary conditions for their keeping. The room where the young animals are kept should be dry, warm and clean. It is imperative to eliminate the possibility of drafts. The temperature should be stable at 18-20 °. The floor in the house where the chickens are kept is made dense, without cracks and holes through which cats, rats or ferrets could enter the chicken coop.
Different poultry farms use different systems for rearing young animals. There are three main such systems - on the bedding, on mesh floors or in cell batteries. In our country, most often chickens are kept in cell batteries, which can significantly save space by placing a large number of birds in a small area without compromising their productivity and health. For growing young animals from daily to 120 days of age, the cellular equipment KBU-3, K-P-8 and BKM-3 are used.
In the room where the chickens are kept, constant or intermittent lighting is used. In the first case, the light does not turn off even at night, and in the second case, periods of light alternate with periods of darkness to simulate daylight hours. If a cell battery is used to keep the bird, which consists of several tiers, then to create uniform lighting, experts advise installing light-diffusing plafonds on the lamps. The luminaires are located at an equal distance from each other. Incandescent lamps should be of the same power, which also allows to achieve a uniform level of lighting.
The growth and development of young animals must be constantly monitored. But since it is not possible to weigh all chickens without the possibility, several control cells are isolated (usually at the beginning of the middle and at the end of the cell battery on each tier). Chickens from their control cells need to be weighed at least once a week. According to the weighing data, it is possible to determine the uniformity of the herd, that is, the number of individuals, expressed as a percentage, which have a live weight above or below the average within 10% of the weight of the whole suspended bird.
Poultry breeders also need to consider that cannibalism is not uncommon among chickens when birds peck at each other. This negatively affects the production and economic indicators of poultry farming. To prevent cannibalism, it is recommended to prune the beaks of young birds (the so-called picking).
Growing repair males has its own characteristics. Young animals in this case are selected by sex, by the development of secondary sexual characteristics and the exterior. For this, a phased system for evaluating and selecting roosters is carried out. For the first time, young animals are evaluated and selected by dividing chickens by sex in the hatchery. The second time, selection is carried out when the young growth reaches the age of 3-4 weeks and it is seated in tiers of the cell battery. The next stage of inspection and selection falls on 9-10 weeks, and the last - on 16-17 weeks before picking the parent herd. When examining young animals, attention is drawn to the exterior of the bird, to the color and size of the earrings and crest, as well as to the state of the latter.
Some farms practice trimming the crests of roosters. When kept in cramped cages, the crest is often injured, which causes stress in the bird and leads to its culling. The crest is trimmed in roosters after evaluation and selection by secondary sexual characteristics at about 5-6 weeks.
With natural mating, ten chickens should be in the rooster. With artificial insemination, one rooster is enough for forty chickens. In the latter case, cocks are selected on the exterior and evaluated by the quality of sperm production.
Birds from the parent herd are kept in reproductive factories or in poultry farms, where they not only produce eggs, but also lay hens. Working with the parent herd is quite complicated, since it involves obtaining high-quality young stock for the formation of an industrial herd. Hatching eggs or day-old chickens are purchased at the breeding farms.
There are many ways to intensively raise chickens. These include forced molting. It allows you to increase the period of use of the parent herd and reduce the cost of growing repair young animals. Artificial molting is carried out after 52 weeks of the first productive period for 50-55 days. For forced molting, stress factors affecting the bird are used. These include, for example, a sharp change in feeding, watering or light conditions. Feathers release feathers from stress. Birds that completely replace the plumage and restore the normal size and color of the crest are considered to be molted. In the second period of productivity, the egg production of hens decreases markedly, but their eggs are better suited for incubation. After artificial molting, the high egg production of birds is maintained in the second period of productivity for another six months.
Please note: roosters are not subjected to artificial molting, as they react more strongly to chickens to stress. To molted chickens, experts advise planting young roosters.
Egg production as a business
The uncertain economic situation in the country makes it impossible to make a more or less accurate forecast for any business. Prices change every week (and sometimes every day). Therefore, we will provide general data on the organization of a subsidiary farm. При составлении бизнес-плана предприниматели могут добавить актуальные на данный момент цены и с максимальной точностью рассчитать ожидаемые расходы и планируемую прибыль.
Итак, организация птицефермы проходит в три этапа: подготовка птичников, закупка цыплят (для начала достаточно будет ста голов) и их выращивание до 18 недель, организация производства яиц от молодняка птицы и мяса выбракованной не несущей птицы. Затем можно будет организовать производства молодняка птицы, для чего потребуются собственные инкубаторы. Итак, мощность такого производства составляет 100/80 голов одновременно. Птицеферма будет выпускать следующую продукцию: куриное яйцо, куриное мясо и субпродукты. Производственный цикл от закупки цыплят до начала носки яиц составляет 4 месяца (120 дней). Производственный цикл от начала носки до окончания яйценоскости достигает 57 недель (400 дней). При этом одна птица приносит в среднем шесть яиц в неделю. Производственный цикл для мясопродуктов от закупки цыплят до убоя промышленной птицы (выбракованной по разным причинам) составляет 5/17 месяцев (150/500 дней). Выход мяса через 150 дней составляет 1, 25 кг, а через 400 дней – 1, 65 кг на одну птицу. Таким образом, выход мяса птицы без учета субпродуктов составляет с одной головы 1, 25/1, 65 кг. Коэффициент падежа колеблется в пределах 5-7 % при соблюдении всех условий содержания.
В год предполагается прохождение одного цикла производства, который занимает 120 дней. Годовой план производства куриных яиц составляет около 35 тысяч штук (количество голов умножаем на цикл в неделях и на количество яиц, получаемых от одной курицы за неделю). Учитывайте, что средняя яйценоскость составляет 85 %. 100 % яйценоскости добиться нереально. В самом лучшем случае это будет 90-95 %. Таким же образом определяется годовой план производства мяса птицы. Для повышения рентабельности вашего производства не стоит делать ставку только лишь на яйца. Хотя они могут стать основной продукцией вашей птицефермы на первом этапе, но впоследствии придется расширять ассортимент (для начала хотя бы за счет реализации мяса выбракованной птицы).
Готовая продукция реализуется через оптовые компании, отдельные розничные магазины и торговые сети… Но в первую очередь стоит обратить внимание на рынки. Розничная стоимость десятка яиц достигает уже 70 рублей за десяток. При этом свежие яйца с подсобных хозяйств продаются на рынках по цене около 90 рублей за десяток. Для торговли на рынке нужно будет получить у участкового ветеринара разрешение на продажу. Оно может быть оформлено и на месте непосредственной продажи. После того как вы оплатите услуги специальной лаборатории, вам выдадут документ о пригодности яиц для продажи. При больших объемах производства можно задуматься о реализации яиц через магазины. Для этого необходимо оформить регистрацию частного предпринимательства, а также получить все необходимые сертификаты и свидетельства, которые выдаются в учреждениях ветеринарного надзора.
К первоначальным расходам относятся затраты на оборудование птичника (оптимальный вариант, если земля под птицеферму находится у вас в собственности), покупка клеток, закупка молодняка, поилок, кормушек и т. д. Также потребуются готовые комбикорма, витаминные добавки. В дальнейшем можно сэкономить до 35 % на закупке кормов, если заготавливать их самостоятельно. Многие птицефермы также продают помет в качестве удобрения. Стоимость его составляет от 80-100 рублей за мешок. Это может стать также дополнительным источником прибыли.
Сроки окупаемости такого бизнеса составляют около 12 месяцев. Принимайте во внимание, что летом цены на яйца сильно снижаются. Расти они начинают с осени, а пик продаж приходится на предновогодний период, а также перед Пасхой.
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