Volumetric pillows and thick woolen blankets are gradually losing their popularity. Traditional natural materials, which have certain disadvantages, have given way to more modern raw materials, as well as cheaper synthetic fillers, which have a large number of advantages. As a result, the manufacturing process of bedding was greatly simplified and automated, which allowed us to reduce the costs of organizing our own production.
Textile business in our country is a profitable investment. Bed linen has always been in high demand. Blankets and pillows are purchased by all people, regardless of their financial situation. These products, unlike other textiles, are independent of fashion trends, which avoids the extra cost of attracting designers to design them. The main changes may concern only the bedding filler, which does not require modernization of production equipment. According to research, the textile industry produces about 40% of the total output of industrial products.
To create a sewing production for the production of bedding, you will need a room with an area of about 100-150 square meters. meters. Keep in mind that blankets and pillows are a rather overall, albeit light, product, therefore, in addition to the workshop, you will need separate rooms for finished goods and supplies warehouses.
Of all bedding, the most difficult to produce blankets. As a rule, blankets are purchased for a long time, so consumers make strict demands on their quality. The Russian market offers a wide selection of blankets that differ in season (lightweight summer, demi-season for autumn and spring, winter warmed), density, size (for children, one and a half, double), filler. The sizes of blankets can vary depending on what standards are accepted in this or that country.
For example, in our country there are double blankets of the following sizes: euro (200 x 220 cm), which is most common throughout the world, "English" or "Soviet" size (175 x 205 cm), which is very popular in our country, Euro maxi or king - size (220 x 240 cm). Double blankets with a size of 180 x 210 cm are slightly less common. In Germany and Italy, for example, the most common are square blankets of 200 x 200 cm in size. The standard sizes of one and a half bed blankets are 143 x 215 cm and 150 x 200 cm. Children's blankets are available in sizes of 110 x 140 cm, and blankets for newborns have a size of 120x120 cm. In addition, on sale you can find models of unconventional shapes and sizes - round, oval of various diameters. But in most cases they are sewn to order, as they are suitable only for certain beds.
The blanket manufacturer should include models for different times of the year. So, for example, summer blankets are the lightest. Demi season is a little warmer. They are used in spring and autumn. Winter blankets are considered the warmest. Often, such models are labeled, depending on their warming properties. For example, one dot can indicate lightweight blankets for the warm season, and five points for cold. The warming qualities of the product depend on the density and type of material from which it is made. And the latter determines the price of the product.
The following types of blankets are distinguished: blankets with open wool (from dressed hides, winter and summer wool blankets and rugs), blankets with filler (cashmere, camel, merino, silk, double silk, fur and lyo-purpose), synthetic blankets (polyester, polyester, acrylic).
The most common in our country are blankets with fillers. And the most expensive among them are cashmere products, which are made from rare natural materials collected by hand. The cashmere fabric is pleasant to the touch, perfectly retains heat, does not cause allergies and is practical to use. In second place are "closed" blankets with camel hair. This raw material consists of coarse hairs and soft undercoat. For the manufacture of bedding, both stiffer wool (usually trimmed from adult animals) and softer with a large admixture of fluff are used (it is collected from non-working camels, and it costs much more than hard wool). First, camel hair is combed, and then quilted with an upper and lower layer of fabric. And in that, and in another case, the creation of one blanket requires a lot of wool, which leads to its high cost. The advantages of such products are its good warming qualities. Merino sheep’s blankets are no less warm and slightly less light, and they cost less than camel wool blankets.
Often in the production of woolen blankets, the technology of thermal bonding of wool is used. The raw material is coarser wool, which costs less than fluff. It is mixed with synthetic nap. Then the resulting layer is driven between two heated shafts. Under the influence of high temperature, the synthetic material melts and reliably “glues” wool fibers, turning the base into a wool layer. Some manufacturers save on natural wool and make blankets using thermal bonding technology, which, for the most part, consists of synthetics.
Duvets are made from natural down of white or gray geese, down of gagra or duck. The most stringent requirements are imposed on products from down. They must fully comply with Russian GOSTs. For the production of downy bedding, raw materials are first collected. White geese fluff is valued more, as these birds live in cold regions and have denser plumage.
For the production of products of a high price category, pure goose down of a lifetime pinch without the admixture of a small feather is used. After the raw material is collected, it is sorted by fluff content, and sometimes by color, and cleaned. In the pre-treatment process, hard fly feathers and fenders, crushed feathers and feathers without awn are removed from the raw material.
The sorted pen is washed, treated with an antistatic agent and disinfected in a special solution. It includes shampoos for washing feather materials, which remove fat and prevent stalling of feathers. Then they are rinsed, squeezed in a centrifuge and dried in a damper at a temperature of about 90 degrees Celsius. This is necessary in order to remove all living organisms from the plumage of birds, pathogenic viruses and bacteria. This stage is carried out extremely quickly, since the pen does not withstand prolonged exposure to high temperatures and can deteriorate. Immediately from the cooling chamber, the feathers are sent for sorting, where they are divided into fractions. In modern industries, this process is automated.
Then the batch of raw materials passes laboratory technical control, as a result of which the quality of the filler is checked. The proportions in which it is mixed are determined by the requirements of GOST. After sorting, the finished mixture, tested by specialists, enters the stuffing shop for filling into covers. Small manufacturing companies prefer to buy ready-made mixtures from suppliers, do not conduct laboratory quality control of stuffing their products, save money on rent, renting a smaller area.
The duvet cover is made from strong, natural fabrics that allow air to pass through and absorb moisture. On the other hand, they do not allow fluff to come out of the case. Most often, such covers are sewn of satin, knitwear, cotton with the addition of lyocell, cambric, silk or jacquard using a special stitch with an inner hem, which prevents the penetration of fluff outside. After filling the covers, the almost finished blanket is sent to the sewing industry.
According to the method of sewing, the following types of blankets are distinguished, which do not depend on the type of filler: cassette, quilted and carostep. The most reliable are blankets with a cassette type of assembly, which, as mentioned above, are stitched in separate sections (cassettes). Each cassette with filler is isolated from the rest, which allows you to hold the "contents", preventing it from losing shape or straying into lumps inside the case. The carostep finish, at first glance, looks like a pattern or decorative pattern on the surface of the blanket, so it is also often called a patterned stitch.
The main disadvantage of this method of sewing is that through the holes that remain on the fabric after the needles, the filler can come out. The quilt is quilted with a stitch on special machines, which prevents it from knocking to the corners. There are two main methods of quilting - squares and parallel stitches. A quilt in the form of squares is considered to be better and more durable than the product sewn with parallel stitches. At the last stage, the blankets are packed in bags of dense polyethylene, where labels are also inserted, and sent to the warehouse.
Natural and eco-friendly filler such as bamboo or eucalyptus fiber is gaining increasing popularity. These materials perfectly allow air to pass through, absorb moisture, are hypoallergenic, do not collect dust, possess antistatic and antibacterial properties and increased wear resistance. Of course, bamboo fiber (like eucalyptus) is not extracted from the plant in its pure form.
First, a soft core is removed from the stem, which is sequentially treated with steam and pressure, resulting in cellulose. For production use only raw bamboo no older than 3-4 years. The resulting cellulose is processed into yarn, from which a bamboo cloth is woven. For sewing covers of inexpensive blankets, including those with a bamboo filler, teak is used - a dense linen-type weave, which does not allow the filler to migrate outward. In more expensive types of blankets, sateen is often used - fabric with diagonal threads and less often other, more exotic types of fabrics (for example, from the same bamboo fiber).
Another natural material used to fill pillows and blankets is silk. You can list its advantages for a long time, including hypoallergenicity, resistance to creasing, the ability to prevent the formation of fungus, the propagation of pathogenic microbes and dust mites, etc. The only drawback of silk as a filler is its high price. As a rule, two types of silk fiber (mulberry) are used for bedding - mulberry and tussa. Strictly speaking, only Mulberry can be called real mulberry silk. This silk has three quality classes A, B and C. The best is the material of class A, which is also called long-fiber mulberry silk.
Sometimes, silkworm of wild silkworm, which lives in natural conditions, is used as a filler. This kind of silk is called tussa. Cocoons of this silkworm have a reddish-brown color and require bleaching, as a result of which the structure of silk is violated and its best qualities are lost.
Quality silk blankets are made by hand. First, small blanks of silk are stretched to the desired size, and then layers of fabric are laid crosswise on them. On a summer blanket the size of Euro-maxi weighing 1200 grams takes about 50 layers of silk fabric. The long-fiber, evenly laid silk forms a uniform strong mass, which is sewn to the blanket cover. Quilted silk blankets are cheaper, as they are usually filled with Tussa silk, and are sewn, not by hand, but with the help of machines.
Synthetic blankets, unlike woolen and downy products, are hypoallergenic, durable, light and compact. They are made from cheap materials, which leads to their low retail cost. But there are also disadvantages. The synthetic winterizer, which is often used as a filler for blankets, does not fall off and does not form lumps. However, this material is practically non-hygroscopic and does not allow air to pass through well. Under such a blanket, the body does not “breathe”, and you can sleep under it only in very cold rooms. A new generation of polyester material (holofiber, comfort) is more expensive than synthetic winterizer, but it maintains temperature well, passing air and not accumulating dust.
One of the main specialists in the production of such products is a technologist. The manufacturing process of high-quality pillows and blankets has many nuances, and it’s very difficult to find craftsmen. Therefore, most companies abandon the idea of organizing a full production cycle, purchasing ready-made raw materials on the side. They themselves only sew covers for products, fill them and pack them.
For the production of bedding you will need special equipment. You may need cutting tables or installations, edging equipment, a blanket miter table, an inlay machine, for edging, for rewinding fabric at an angle of 45 degrees, programmed quilting machines for blankets, machines for processing polyester fiber into filler for pillows and blankets, down blanket dispensers, bactericides for feather pillows, down sorting machines, down blanket dispenser, clothes line yalnoy layer, packaging machines, etc.
The exact list of necessary equipment depends on the types of products that you will produce. You can purchase both new and used equipment. The minimum set for the production of products of 2-3 types will cost 1 million rubles. Sewing equipment for the manufacture of bedding is made in Russia, China and Europe.
In addition, there is the opportunity to purchase a ready-made business for tailoring products. For example, the production of mattresses, pillows and bedding with a promised monthly profit of 300 thousand rubles and an average monthly turnover of 3 million rubles with a total number of personnel of 20 people is offered for sale at a price of about 10 million rubles. At such a production, lines for the production of blankets, pillows, mattresses, cutting equipment, sewing machines and overlocks were installed. The leased area for such a workshop is about 350 square meters. meters with a rental price of 40 thousand rubles per month plus monthly utility bills in the amount of 10 thousand rubles. The salary fund for a staff of 20 people is 150 thousand rubles a month. The production of only bedding (without mattresses) will cost 1.5-2 million cheaper. However, with such production volumes, it is recommended to produce not only blankets and pillows, but also to sew bed linen, including sheets, pillowcases, duvet covers, mattress covers, etc. In this case, the payback period of production with high profitability of up to 50% is about three years.
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