Textile industry is called the light industry, which is engaged in the manufacture of fabrics. Despite the fact that this industry has the longest history, the general production scheme for several thousand years has not undergone significant changes. Demand for textile products remains at a consistently high level.
In terms of sales, the textile market in our country ranks second after the food. True, the share of domestic goods represented on it is only one fifth of the total. 42% belongs to legally imported textiles, and over a third of it is illegally imported and counterfeit products. This situation adversely affects the country's economy and the profits of domestic producers. Another problem faced by the latter is related to incomplete downloads and frequent production shutdowns for a period of four or more months. First of all, this applies to companies that produce cotton fabrics, and is explained by the rise in price of raw materials and insufficient supplies from abroad. In addition, among the main problems of the industry, one can also name the low technical level of production (most enterprises use long-outdated equipment), the lack of investment to update it and the great dependence of domestic producers on the world raw materials market. One of the main trends in this market is an increase in demand for high-quality and at the same time affordable products with an original and, most importantly, relevant design.
Over the past few years, the textile industry has developed at the fastest pace compared to other sectors of the economy. Production volumes here increased until 2008-2009 by an average of 25-30% each year. However, during the crisis, it, like many other economic sectors, suffered greatly: many domestic textile enterprises closed, production and sales fell sharply. Investors still underestimate this sector. Like several years ago, the cost of textile production in the market for ready-made businesses is 15-20% lower than the cost of a food company with comparable profit and about the same assets. On the other hand, this fact indicates that the textile industry has great potential for development. With the right approach, this business is characterized by high return on investment and is of most interest to strategic investors. According to experts, the purchase of a small textile production (with investments up to 1.5-2 million rubles) pays off after 1.5-2 years. With large enterprises, the situation is different. They bring less profit, and investors can count on the age of investment no earlier than after 4-5 years. This is due to the fact that most of the Russian textile industries use long-obsolete equipment, and its modernization requires additional investments.
All participants in the domestic textile market can be attributed to one of four main groups. The first includes the largest enterprises that produce large batches of the same type of product. Such textiles are notable for affordable prices, but the quality of the products may be lame, and the choice of designs is not very diverse. Many such enterprises have a great debt to the state. They are located in the regions and receive the status of "social significance", especially if they are occupied by the majority of the residents of the nearest settlements - small cities, towns and regional centers. Most of the enterprises of this type have already been sold out. Moreover, buyers are more interested in the property that is owned by these companies, since their production base and marketing component should be reviewed and completely updated long ago. Entrepreneurs who are interested in developing textile production sometimes find it more profitable to create a factory from scratch than to acquire an existing illiquid enterprise.
Another, the largest, group of textile market participants is represented by foreign manufacturers. Products that are imported from Asian countries are mostly characterized by low and medium quality and equally low prices. However, unlike textiles of the same price category of domestic production, imported cheap fabric is available in a large assortment and with a more modern design, which is partially original and partially copied by manufacturers from other people's collections. Reasonable prices and attractive colors with comparable quality allow Chinese factories to successfully compete with Russian ones. Manufacturers from America and Europe supply high-quality and beautiful fabrics to our country. But their cost is too high for domestic manufacturers of clothing and other textile products, so the share of Western brands in the Russian textile market is small.
The third group includes wholesale and trading companies that place orders for the production of their products from foreign manufacturers (mainly in China), and then sell textiles in our country under their own brands. Their products are of good quality and affordable prices. In the future, as it develops, most of these companies prefer to create their own production in Russia. They, as a rule, cannot boast of expensive assets, but bring good and stable profits. Therefore, such enterprises appear to be the most attractive for investors. As experience shows, the presence of its own design studio in such a company can increase profits by 30%.
The last, fourth, group includes small manufacturing companies. In most cases, these are small workshops that are located in a rented area of up to 300 square meters. meters. They are poorly equipped, and the bulk of the work in such industries is carried out manually. Small firms are usually located in areas where labor costs are much lower than in large cities. They actively use the services of transport companies, so their market is practically unlimited. The return on investment in such an acquisition is estimated to be about 80% per annum.
So far, imported products prevail on the Russian market, but the authorities have already developed and adopted the so-called “Strategy for the development of Russian light industry for the period until 2020”. According to this document, it is planned to increase the share of Russian goods in the country's textile market by 50% by the deadline. Moreover, 46% of their total should be “innovative products”. In addition, the state provides basic support to domestic producers, mainly in the form of subsidized interest rates on loans for the seasonal purchase of raw materials and materials, as well as for technical re-equipment.
Types of Tissues
Textile products are called fabrics and finished products from various natural and synthetic fibers. All tissues are divided into two main groups: natural and chemical. Natural fabrics, in turn, are divided into separate groups according to their origin - animal (wool, silk, etc.) or vegetable (linen, cotton, jute, gorse, etc.). Chemical fabrics are divided into textiles of mineral, artificial and synthetic origin. Synthetic fibers are used in pure form and in the form of additives.
Among the most common natural fabrics can be called cotton, which are made from pure cotton or from cotton mixed with other fibers. Cotton is made from soft hairs on the seeds of a cotton plant and consists of a natural polymer - cellulose. Each fiber represents approximately thirty layers of cellulose. Cotton fabrics may vary in appearance, depending on the density: the cambric is the thinnest, the coarse calico, the satin, chintz, flannel, cloth, and the dense are denim.
Flax fiber is produced from the eponymous annual plant from the flax family. Since flax fibers have low elasticity and, therefore, are poorly intertwined, the production of such fabric is more expensive than cotton. Flax fabrics are rather hard to the touch, in addition, characteristic thickenings of the fibers are visible on their surface.
Natural silk is made from silkworm cocoons. Silk fiber consists of two silk fibers, which are fastened together using a special substance - sericin. The length of such a thread is from 400 to 1200 meters. Cocoons are treated with steam, which softens sericin, dried, after which the silk is carefully unwound and twisted into threads. Due to its strength and elasticity, silk is the basis for the production of many textile materials (for example, satin, gas, velvet).
Wool is a fiber of natural (animal) origin, which is used for spinning and weaving both in pure form and in a mixture with other types of fibers. In most cases, manufacturers use fleece. Less commonly, fabric is made from the wool of other animals (Kashmiri goats, alpaca llamas, ages, camels, etc.). Each high quality wool hair has three layers. The top layer consists of many flakes that overlap each other. The second layer consists of keratinized spindle-shaped cells, and the third, inner, layer has a porous structure. The fabric, which is made using woolen fibers, retains heat well, does not crease, and perfectly absorbs moisture and odor.
Artificial fibers, which include viscose and acetate, are obtained by chemical processing of natural fibers. Viscose fabrics are chemically similar to cotton fabrics. Moreover, they have a number of advantages - attractive appearance, good hygienic properties, silkiness. Acetate fabrics are light, smooth and have a more shiny surface than silk fabrics. However, they are not durable (especially when wet) and are not very hygienic.
Synthetic fabrics are produced by synthesizing various materials (coal, oil, etc.). Polyamide fabrics (nylon, nylon) have a smooth surface, have high strength and resistance to wear, but they do not absorb moisture, but they easily absorb fat and therefore are not hygienic. Polyester fabrics (in pure form or mixed with natural fibers) are among the most common types of textiles used for the manufacture of clothing.
Textile production consists of several main stages. The very first of these is called pre-production and consists of processing the fibers to produce yarn. In pre-production, fiber is delivered in pressed bales. Before the fibers turn into yarn, they must undergo additional processing. First, the bale is loosened, the fibers go through the beating procedure and are combed with the help of ridges. Using roving machines get roving. When using pneumomechanical spinning equipment, it is possible to produce yarn directly from tapes, without the “roving” processing step. The second stage is the spinning of a stern fiber, as a result of which yarn (textile thread) is obtained from a disparate mass of cotton fibers. This yarn must meet quality standards and have certain physical and mechanical properties. There are several ways to spin the yarn, depending on its purpose: carded, hardware, melange, combed.
At the third stage of production, which is called weaving, the fabric itself is created, from which various products are subsequently sewn. Textiles are made using looms by interweaving longitudinal (warp) and transverse (weft) threads. The finished fabric goes through the finishing procedure, as a result of which it acquires certain properties: strength, gloss, softness, smoothness, fire resistance, thermal conductivity, waterproofness, etc. In addition, at this stage, the resulting fabric is painted in the desired color.
In addition to the loom, special equipment is required at various stages of fabric production. Weft yarn is rewound on weft-winding machines. To rewind the main yarn, winding machines and winding machines are used. To warp the main yarn, batch and ribbon warping machines are used. For sizing the main yarn, materials for preparing the adhesive composition (dressing), sizing machines and gluing machines will be required. Sorting of the base is carried out on parting machines, stationary and mobile knotting machines.
How to organize textile production
For the successful organization of the textile industry, regardless of whether it concerns the purchase of an existing enterprise or its creation from scratch, several key factors must be taken into account. The first concerns the development of new collections. Original and fashionable textile design is one of the main conditions for high demand for your products. The development of new collections at large Western enterprises is engaged in a whole group of designers who work directly under the guidance of the owner of the company. Perhaps this department can be called the key. Work on a new collection can take anywhere from six months to a year. Therefore, young firms prefer to purchase designs for their first textile collections from independent design companies.
The premises for the production workshop should be at least 50 square meters. meters. In addition, you will need separate areas for warehouses for storing raw materials, finished products and illiquid assets. The larger the storage facilities, the better. In off-season periods, when production volumes fall, companies survive on profits from sales of warehouse balances of collections from this and previous seasons.
Small firms place up to 80% of production orders between homeworkers. Medium-sized companies for the most part place orders in Chinese and less often in Russian factories. Large enterprises need special sewing equipment. The cost of one production line starts from 1.5 million rubles. In addition, for distribution of products to points of sale or dealerships, a fleet of at least five vehicles will be required. Small and medium-sized companies turn to the services of third-party transport companies.
Companies that manufacture textiles must have a certificate for their products. In addition, an average company will need about 50 specialists - from managers and accountants to seamstresses and cutters. Textile companies market finished products through regional dealer and retail chains. Therefore, to search for customers and increase recognition, they must have their own website on the Internet, advertise in specialized publications, issue catalogs with samples of their products, take an active part in specialized exhibitions, sell and distribute their branded products (racks, booklets, catalogs, packages among dealers) etc.).
The textile business is seasonal. The main sales are in the spring (from March to June) and autumn (from September to November) periods. Therefore, companies are trying to release their new collections by March and September, otherwise customers will go to competitors, and the company will remain with illiquid reserves and will not be able to pay for the production of models in the next season.
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