Pumpkin cultivation

Food industry Fruits and Vegetables Agriculture Plant growing

Pumpkin is a plant distributed throughout the world. In total, there are about 20 types of pumpkins. In Russia, one of these species, known as common pumpkin, is grown and eaten. Pumpkins are used for baking, cooking cereals, salads, desserts. Such products are extremely useful and suitable for baby and diet food. Old Russian cuisine also often includes pumpkin. In addition to a pleasant taste and useful properties, a big plus of pumpkins is the long shelf life of fruits without the use of a refrigerator.

Dried pumpkin seeds are no less popular in Russia than fruits, since they have healing properties.

Growing a pumpkin is easier than most other crops, as it is not capricious during the growing season, however, adherence to a certain technology is necessary to ensure high yield and quality of fruits. First of all, it is worth remembering that a pumpkin needs light, warmth and fertile soil. In the northern territories in open ground it will grow poorly, it is better to use the seedling method, but in the south you can plant a pumpkin directly in the ground.

Renting a hectare of land in Krasnodar, Stavropol Territory, Rostov Region with supplied water supply and the presence of a road nearby costs from 10, 000 rubles per year. When renting large areas, the cost is reduced.

The best forerunners of pumpkin are cabbage, tomato and potatoes. In autumn, you need to dig up the soil and add 3-4 kilograms of humus or manure, 30-40 grams of superphosphate, 15-20 potash fat per square meter. If fertilizers have not been applied in advance, you can add 500 grams of humus and 10 grams of superphosphate to each well when planting. The cost of plowing land when hiring equipment costs about 3, 000 rubles per hectare. Fertilizers - another 2, 000 per hectare.

You can sow pumpkin in the second half of April, when the soil warms up to 10-12 degrees. 3-4 seeds, previously prepared, are placed in each well. Seed preparation consists of keeping them for a week at a temperature of 30-35 degrees and etching with fentyuram. The distance between the rows is 1.4 meters.

There are a large number of different varieties of pumpkin, varying in degree of sweetness, skin color, ripening time, size of fruits.

• “Baby” - a sweet early ripening variety. Great for growing in the middle lane and in the south. The period from emergence to the first fruit harvest is 90 days. The weight of the fruit is 2-3 kilograms. The pulp is bright yellow, stored for a long time.

  • "Atlant" is a sweet late-ripe pumpkin of large sizes (sometimes up to 50 kilograms). The period from seedlings to the first harvest is up to 130 days.
  • "Big Max" is a late-ripening variety characterized by high productivity. The fruits are large, up to 40 kilograms. The ripening period of the variety is 130 days. The pulp is sweet, orange.
  • “Almond” is a sweet late-ripening variety. Productivity is high, the weight of the fetus is up to 7 kilograms. Ripens in 120 days. It is stored for a long time.
  • "Volga Gray" is a ripening high-yielding pumpkin. The pulp is sweet, egg-yellow. It is stored for a long time. This variety is resistant to various fungal diseases.
  • Adagio is a late-ripe pumpkin that tolerates cold and is suitable for cultivation in the northern regions. The mass of the fetus is small, up to 3 kilograms. The pulp is orange.
  • "Amazon Early" - a sweet high-yielding pumpkin. The mass of fruits is 1-1.5 kilograms.
  • “Vitamin” is a late-ripening muscat variety with sweet bright orange pulp, in which there is a very high content of beta-carotene. The mass of fruits is 5-7 kilograms.
  • “Melon” is a mid-early variety, the fruits reach a mass of 30 kilograms. The pulp is dark orange in color, very juicy and sweet, with melon taste and smell.
  • “Winter Sweet” is a late-ripening variety. The mass of fruits is 5-6 kilograms.
  • "Pearl" is a medium-late variety. The pulp is sweet, dark orange. The fruit mass is up to 6 kilograms. From one plant you can get up to 25 kilograms.
  • "Merchant" is a mid-season juicy pumpkin. The mass of the fetus is 8-10 kilograms. From one plant you can get up to 24 kilograms of crop. It is stored for a long time.
  • Smile is a cold-resistant pumpkin variety. Matures very quickly. The pulp has a bright orange color and melon aroma. The mass of the fetus is up to 2 kilograms.

Pumpkin seeds can be bought through online stores. The cost depends on the variety and size of the party. Typically, seeds are packaged with packages of 10 pieces. The cost of a package in bulk is from 5 to 10 rubles. Weighted pumpkin seeds for wholesale are about 1000 rubles per kilogram.

The seed consumption during sowing is about 15 thousand pieces per hectare, that is, the cost of buying pumpkin seeds for sowing a hectare of land will be from 75 thousand rubles.

During the pumpkin growing season, weed control must be maintained and the soil maintained in a loose state. Cultivation is carried out by a cultivator. The cost of the cultivator - from 10 thousand rubles.

After the appearance of the first leaf, the first breakthrough is made, in the phase of three leaves - the second. The best plant is left in the nest.

Pumpkin can be grown with or without watering if the variety is drought tolerant. Watering is carried out three to four times per season, during the flowering period of female flowers every 10-12 days. 6-10 liters of water are consumed per plant for irrigation. Together with watering, superphosphate is fed. The norm of the solution is 2-3 liters per plant.

The cost of growing one hectare of pumpkin, including the cost of seeds, fertilizers, water, people’s work, is about 120 thousand rubles.

Pumpkin harvesting is carried out in dry weather, it must be completed before the onset of frost. Fruits are cut by hand, and then sorted by size and quality. Manual harvesting minimizes fruit damage. Storage of harvested pumpkins is best done under a canopy to shelter the fruits from the rain. If the pumpkins are dried in the sun for 10 days, this will increase the duration of storage.

For mechanized harvesting, you can use swath formers. The machine rakes the rolls of vegetables, and then with the help of pickers loads the fruits into the vehicle. The swath width is 6 meters. In one hour of operation, the machine is capable of processing 6, 5 kilometers of landing. Fruit damage is low enough for machine harvesting - about 4 percent. The cost of the swather is about 250 thousand rubles. One swather is able to replace the work of 70 people.

In addition to the swather, when harvesting pumpkins, you may need a conveyor for loading vegetables onto the vehicle. The cost of the car is from 100 thousand rubles.

The yield of pumpkin per hectare is about 30 tons. The cost of a kilogram of pumpkin on agricultural exchanges is 14-17 rubles per kilogram. Thus, by selling a crop from one hectare, you can get 420 thousand rubles.

Merkulova Natalya

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