Sweet Cold: Opening an Ice Cream Business

Food industry Dairy products

More than 300 enterprises are engaged in the production of ice cream in Russia. But at the same time, 14 of them account for half of the domestic market. What are the prospects for small and medium-sized companies in this situation?

Producers can, consumers do not want

Fifteen years ago, about 100 enterprises were engaged in the production of ice cream in Russia. They worked almost around the clock, and all manufactured products diverged on the fly, since the market between 1985 and 1991 grew annually by about 10%. And the profitability of the business was at least 50%. Many new enterprises appeared on this wave. Everyone was investing money in a fast-growing and profitable market, and the number of manufacturers increased threefold. But when in 1992 the market collapsed sharply, a huge overabundance of production capacity was formed.

Today, all Russian producers are capable of producing about 800 thousand tons of ice cream per year. But consumers can eat half as much. Therefore, lines at most enterprises work half or a third of their capacity.

One for all

It is interesting that a number of companies that have become market leaders in a short time have come to it in recent years. While many Soviet cold-storage plants noticeably lost their positions. Success was achieved only by those who managed to close the whole chain - from production to marketing products.

- The king in our market is a merchant. To make ice cream is not enough. We must be able to sell it, ”says Eduard Bagiryan, Director General of the Association of Russian Ice Cream and Frozen Food Producers. - The cost of ice cream is low. The main share in the structure of the retail price is occupied by the trade margin. It happens that it reaches 60%. Therefore, those manufacturers who were able to build a distribution network, were able to develop rapidly. Since they make money both in production and in trade.

The company “Ice-Fili” once went this way (its own network of 100 stalls and 2000 freezer chests installed in stores); Russkiy Kholod concern (a network of 240 stalls in Moscow and 9000 chests of stores in stores throughout Russia), the Kolomna Refrigeration Plant (90 branded stalls).

“In our company, the share of sales through our own distribution network is more than 70%, ” says Alexander Saulin, Development and Marketing Director of the Russian Cold Concern. - Therefore, we do not depend on whether the wholesaler will come to us or not. Even if all the wholesalers suddenly stop buying ice cream from us, nothing will happen.

Another way is when the wholesale trading companies selling "alien" ice cream in the late 90s organized their own production. This is how AlterVEST and Ramsay acted. A prerequisite for this kind of transformation was the dissatisfaction of the traders with work with existing plants. It was important for manufacturers to load all their capacities in the winter and sell all manufactured products, and dealers wanted to buy ice cream only during the season, and even at a discount. As a result, disputes over who needs whom more — the manufacturer to the dealer, or the dealer to the manufacturer — have proved insoluble. And the former wholesalers have healed their own independent life in the market.

Sales channels

Previously, you could buy ice cream only at specialized kiosks. Therefore, the share of products sold through this sales channel amounted to 70%. Now a lot of ice cream is sold through chest freezers installed in stores. Provide their manufacturers or wholesale companies. Traders only need to comply with one condition: load the freezer only with the product range agreed upon with the owner of the chest. The more chests a manufacturer or wholesaler has, the more ice cream he can sell.

Through one kiosk, you can sell about 12-15 tons of ice cream per year. Through the chest - 1-1.5 tons.

“The more points of sales, the wider your product range, the higher your sales, ” says Alexei Frolov, Deputy General Director for Marketing at Kolomenskiy Refrigerated Plant.

An important advantage is given to those companies that have an extensive trading network throughout Russia. So far, only the Russian Cold has created it.

“Ice cream sales are highly dependent on the weather, ” says Alexander Saulin. - But, having outlets in different cities, we do not feel the influence of this factor so much. When it rains in Moscow, it can be +30 in Siberia. Therefore, a surge in sales in one region is smoothing out a drop in demand in another.

How to warm up the market?

Now every resident of Russia eats 2.6 kg of ice cream per year on average. Only in Moscow, this figure is higher - 3.5 kg.

In the 90s, ice cream consumption was almost 1.5 times higher. But gradually the Russians cooled to a sweet treat. Demand reduction was facilitated by the emergence of so-called substitute goods in abundance. These are mainly beer, soft drinks, chips and chocolate bars. If earlier walks on a summer day were accompanied by an almost mandatory purchase of popsicle, now young people prefer to spend free time with a bottle of beer or a can of low alcohol cocktail. What pulls money from the ice cream market.

Today, the volume of the Russian ice cream market is 376.2 thousand tons per year. The sky-high dream of all domestic producers is to increase the level of ice cream consumption to the performance of Western countries. In Europe, each person eats 8-10 kg of ice cream per year, in the United States and even more - 13-15 kg.

However, specialists working in the market set a more realistic goal for the coming years: to return to the indicators of the early 90s, when the market volume was 450-460 thousand tons per year.

For this to happen, ice cream as a product category needs massive advertising support. The same as it turns out to be beer.

“The problem is not that the consumer prefers ice cream from one manufacturer over another, ” says Alexey Frolov. - It is bad that consumers buy some other goods instead of ice cream.

For young people to consume more cold treats, they need to create the image of a fashionable and modern product. To do this alone is not within the power of any of the medium-sized manufacturers. Their income is too small to run an advertisement on central television. At the same time, the idea of ​​combining advertising budgets and a joint campaign ice cream makers are, to put it mildly, cool. Some believe that television ads for individual brands of large manufacturers (Nestle, Unilever, AlterVEST, Talosto) are slowly pulling the whole market along because they remind consumers about the existence of ice cream. Others believe that it will still not be possible to raise funds for a massive campaign, but it’s a pity to throw out small but hard-earned money.

The strongest survives

Today, the range of large enterprises includes more than a hundred types of ice cream. Traditional "popsicle" or "briquette with waffles" are nowadays satisfying only middle-aged people. But young people and children, especially those living in large cities, where population incomes are high, always want to try something new. To please them, manufacturers are refined as they can. Fortunately, modern equipment allows you to make real masterpieces with a complex recipe, a large number of components and an intricate shape. So far, the share of so-called high-tech ice cream is no more than a third of the market. However, according to experts, in the coming years it will grow to 40-50%.

“It is profitable to produce high-tech ice cream, ” says Alexander Saulin. - It is expensive, but it pays off well.

Organization of the production of high-tech ice cream is very expensive. One line on which it is possible to produce only one or two "complex" varieties costs more than $ 1 million. Units can invest such money in the development of production. In addition, the popularity of ice cream today is determined not only by its quality, but also by its appearance. Large companies spend large amounts of money on branding and packaging.

“Ice cream, as a rule, is bought spontaneously, ” says Alexey Frolov. - Therefore, manufacturers should clearly know what attracts different groups of consumers. For example, we ordered large-scale marketing research in Moscow and Russia, independently conducted special studies in schools and institutes in Moscow and found out what young people like. According to the results of these studies, new brands were developed.

Only companies that sell a lot of products can afford to pack ice cream in the most modern clothes - plastic cups and containers with a practical and attractive “fused label”.

“If a small producer orders such packaging for his products, his ice cream will turn out to be“ golden, ”says Alexander Saulin.

Thus, it is almost impossible to compete with industry giants in terms of rich assortment and product quality for small companies using old lines and lacking marketing resources. Therefore, for many, the only way to stay on the market is to produce cheap ice cream: the “good old” waffle cup and briquettes.

However, gradually even such "narrow" manufacturers are being replaced by larger companies from the market.

“It turned out to be more profitable to produce ice cream in waffle cups than to buy it, ” says Natalia Mannai, Sales Department Coordinator, Kholod Trade House. - Therefore, we purchased a dairy in Kineshma. It is very important that we can monitor the quality of our products. After all, often unscrupulous manufacturers, in order to earn more, add low-quality fats to ice cream.

Only mid-level manufacturers who serve the needs of only one region and produce between 4, 000-5, 000 tons per year feel relatively calm.

How to survive the winter

Ice cream is a seasonal item. In summer, 50% of all ice cream is sold, in spring and autumn - 20% each, and in winter - only 10%. In the cold season, manufacturers reduce the range by two to three times, producing only the most popular varieties and more of the so-called "family" ice cream in plastic containers, which is eaten at home.

To make a profit not only in the summer, but also in the winter, many companies diversified their business. Some are engaged in the production of not only ice cream, but also frozen products - vegetables, fruits, dumplings and other semi-finished products. So, for example, the St. Petersburg company Talosto acts. And some are engaged, in addition to "freezing", and other activities. This allows you to flexibly operate capital and smooth out seasonal fluctuations in profits in the ice cream market.

For trading companies that have placed their freezing equipment in stores, expanding the range also helps to survive the winter without loss.

- Our company has 7000 freezer chests in Moscow and Moscow region. They need to be filled with something. Store owners want us to supply them with not only slow-selling ice cream in the winter, but also other products, ”says Natalya Mannai. - Therefore, we have concluded contracts with foreign and domestic producers of frozen vegetables, shrimp and meat semi-finished products. Thus, we satisfy the needs of stores and at the same time maintain the exclusivity of using our equipment.

Where to go?

The main trouble of small producers and trading companies is that their stronger colleagues are gradually occupying all promising niches and until recently, ice cream sales places.

- We annually exhibit our freezing chests on all major beaches of Moscow. We have cordless chests that do not require a network connection, ”says Natalya Mannai. - On hot days, sales there are ten times higher than in the store. We provide refrigeration equipment for the sale of ice cream at various mass holidays - city days, for example. In addition, we have experience selling ice cream on river buses and steamers in Nizhny Novgorod.

"Free from ice cream" while the trains. However, selling it here is not profitable. After all, people can go out and buy ice cream while stopping at the station. In addition, it is impossible to put a chest in the kitchen of a restaurant car due to crowding.

A promising sales channel is coffee shops. Moreover, their number has been growing rapidly lately. But it should be borne in mind that portioned ice cream in a package is not popular in coffee houses. There can go only a loose treat with chocolate, syrup, nuts, added directly during cooking.

According to Eduard Bagiryan, in the future interest in soft ice cream may increase in Russia. Indeed, in Europe this category occupies 35-40% of the entire ice cream market.

- According to our estimates, the payback period of the point where soft ice cream is made is two months. The main thing is that it should be located in a crowded place, ”says Eduard Bagiryan. - The problem is that we have not yet developed a culture of consumption of this product.

Who will remain in the market?

In many European countries, ice cream markets are almost entirely owned by two global giants: Unilever and Nestle. Local producers occupy insignificant market shares.

“We asked them:“ How do you manage to coexist next to such giants? ”Says Eduard Bagiryan. - They replied: “If Unilever and Nestle would like to eat us, they would do it within two months. But for them it does not make sense. Because we make special varieties of ice cream, such as cakes for St. Valentine's Day. Dealing with these giants is unprofitable. Only because we do not directly compete with them did we remain in the market. ”

Today, fourteen major Russian manufacturers occupy half of the domestic market. What remains to everyone else? The average price of ice cream is $ 1.5 per kg, which means that the annual market size is about $ 376 million. With a business profitability of 15%, all small enterprises can earn a total of $ 42.3 million per year. This money is clearly not enough to upgrade the production base and promote the market. Therefore, experts fairly predict the further consolidation of the market.

Russian Cold is now building another factory in the suburbs. By the beginning of 2004, its capacity will be 30 thousand tons. Thus, the total production capacity of the concern will exceed 60 thousand tons. In the next two years, the company also plans to put in stores 10-15 thousand freezer chests.

The Inmarko group of companies plans to invest $ 5 million in the construction of another factory with a capacity of 24 thousand tons per year and $ 2.5 million in the purchase of 4, 000 branded counters for distribution in retail chains in 11 regions. The factory should be commissioned by 2005.

Naturally, some small companies, unable to withstand such fierce competition, will be forced to leave. Large companies will absorb part of it.

In addition, next year, the state, which has a 51% stake in four dozen cold-storage plants, should “throw” them out for sale. Which will also cause a new wave of mergers and acquisitions.

“I think that in a few years no more than five serious players will remain on the market, ” said Alexander Saulin.

Some experts believe that the market will be redistributed due to the return of Unilever to the Russian market this year. However, according to Alexander Saulin, the competition from this global giant is not terrible for us.

- The price of their ice cream is two to three times higher than our products. This fact stops many consumers, because at a lower price, the quality of our ice cream is no worse, ”says Alexander Saulin. - The fact that Unilever spends a lot of money on television advertising does not mean automatic success. By the criterion of “brand recognition” they can be in the first place. But not the fact that people will buy their ice cream.

The appearance of completely new players on the market, experts surveyed by SB, are considered unlikely.

“The attractiveness of this business has sharply decreased in recent years, and competition has increased very much, ” says Eduard Bagiryan. - Therefore, I would lament several times to think to those who would like to start producing ice cream today ...

TYPES OF ICE CREAM, MOST POPULAR IN RESIDENTS OF RUSSIAN CITIES (January-April 2003)

Share of total sales, %

Cake, ice cream in a container

21.0

Ice cream in a waffle cup

20.5

Popsicle

15.6

Briquette

12.1

Briquette with waffles

8.3

Ice cream in a plastic or paper cup

3.9

Waffle cone

2.9

Bar

1.7

Gourmet Ice Cream

1.7

Leningradskoe type ice cream

1.4

Other types of ice cream

10.9

The main thing for an ice cream producer is to establish the release of the maximum possible assortment of varieties. Therefore, the choice of multifunctional equipment is the most important component of commercial success.

Foreign giants

The most solid positions in the Russian ice cream market are held by such world-famous companies as Tetra Pak Hoyer, Tekno-Ice, Catta 27 and Gram Equipment. They provide the widest possible range of equipment, ranging from dairy mix kitchens to packaging lines.

Global manufacturers are constantly updating the lineup. Так, среди самых последних разработок компании Tetra Pak Hoyer, представленных сегодня в России, можно отметить новый многофункциональный дозатор «Хойер Профиллс VC» ($7-19 тыс.) и установку «Хойер Форма SF» ($10-20 тыс., в зависимости от модификации).

С помощью многоцелевого дозатора «Хойер Профиллс VC» можно производить необычные виды продукции, комбинирующие в себе различные сорта мороженого и фруктового льда с разнообразными декоративными элементами. Конструктивно дозатор состоит из базового наполнительного блока для одноцветного наполнения порции снизу, а также из дополнительных модулей для производства многоцветных продуктов и мороженого типа «сверло». Дозатор позволяет включать в порции фрукты, орехи, шоколад, цукаты и другие ингредиенты. Можно также создавать комбинации из фруктового льда с 30%-ной взбитостью и мороженого со 100%-ной взбитостью в вертикальном, горизонтальном или концентрическом направлении. Способ наполнения порций «от дна» при низкой температуре (до –5 °С) обеспечивает высокую взбитость мороженому и придает ему кремообразный вкус.

Еще одно преимущество устройства «Хойер Профиллс VC» заключается в том, что оно является отдельной установкой, со своим собственным электрощитовым блоком и пультом управления. Поэтому оно может быть смонтировано на любом из эскимогенераторов «Хойер Ролло» или на других машинах, производящих формовое мороженое на палочке. Производительность дозатора – до 30 циклов/мин при наполнении сверху и до 25 циклов/мин при наполнении снизу. Наполнение спиральным методом осуществляется при скорости до 20 циклов/мин.

Используя установку «Хойер Форма SF», можно получать рельефные или формованные продукты из мороженого. Агрегат легко вписывается в уже существующие на предприятии экструзионные линии по выпуску эскимо, брикетов, порционного мороженого, тортов «полено» и пирожных. Машина позволяет придавать порциям четко очерченные оригинальные формы и штамповать на них, скажем, логотипы. После этого порции можно погружать в шоколадную или другую глазурь. «Хойер Форма SF» является автономной установкой с программируемым логическим контроллером для управления процессами синхронизации, прессования и подачи азота, способной работать в синхронном режиме с экструзионной линией.

Итальянская компания Tekno-Ice позиционирует на рынке свою продукцию в качестве оптимального выбора как для крупных, так и для средних предприятий, а также мини-цехов по производству мороженого. Стоимость линий колеблется от $75 тыс. до $400 тыс. Производственная программа Tekno-Ice включает кухни для порционного и непрерывного приготовления смесей, фризеры серии «ТекноФриз», фруктопитатели, ротационные фасовочные машины «Текнофил».

Интересной конструкцией отличаются фризеры Tekno-Ice. Рабочий цилиндр в них установлен наклонно. Это решение имеет ряд преимуществ. Во-первых, подобная конструкция позволяет получить качественную смесь с температурой –8 °С (оптимальная температура мороженого для экструзионных линий), с показателем взбитости до 160%. Наклон цилиндра способствует более равномерному распределению нагрузки на привод мешалки. Кроме того, если начинают подтекать сальники, готовящаяся смесь не попадет в исполнительные механизмы. При запуске фризера легче контролировать качество смеси, сводя к минимуму потери продукта.

Фризеры Tekno-Ice оснащены также так называемой отслеживающей электроникой, которая считывает текущие параметры технологического процесса (температуру, скорость и взбитость), а вся настройка агрегата осуществляется вручную. Это является важным преимуществом для российского рынка, где условия производства далеко не всегда идеальны. Другой аспект – отсутствие дорогой электроники – снижает себестоимость аппарата и делает более экономичным сервисное обслуживание. Все модели фризеров оснащены системой аварийной оттайки цилиндра, устройством стерилизации и фильтрации воздуха и могут быть подключены к системе безразборной мойки CIP.

Среди новинок рынка оборудования заслуживают интереса линии стоимостью от $120 тыс. по производству мороженого типа «сверло», от датской Gram Equipment.

А компания Catta 27 недавно стала поставлять в Россию мини-линии «Mitto 27» с ручными или полуавтоматическими эскимогенераторами. Наиболее популярны у нас линии с производительностью порядка 6-7 тыс. шт./час (для эскимо) и 7-8 тыс. шт./час (для мороженого в виде батончиков). Кроме того, фирма производит специальное лабораторное оборудование для хладокомбинатов и фабрик мороженого, в состав которого входят танк для нагрева и пастеризации смеси, два танка для охлаждения, гомогенизатор, фризер мощностью 100-200 л/час, ручные наполнительная и фасовочная машины. Комплект стоимостью от $120 тыс. позволяет выпускать пробные партии мороженого в процессе создания новых рецептур и отработки технологии.

Наши марки

Российские производители оборудования год от года все сильнее конкурируют с крупными зарубежными компаниями и по надежности, и по универсальности оборудования, и – главное – по цене. В среднем российское оборудование стоит примерно на 40-50% ниже импортных аналогов.

Недавно обновил модельный ряд завод «Лига». Теперь им выпускаются фруктопитатели, горизонтальные экструдеры «УИММ» мощностью до 600 кг/час для изготовления многослойного мороженого (до 3 слоев), с прослойками из глазури (порции 180х85х75 мм, массой до 500 г), установки «УИММ-П» для изготовления мелкопорционного многослойного мороженого и, наконец, линии «ЛЭМ-400» (скороморозильная камера, фризеры, упаковочный автомат непрерывного действия) по выпуску батончиков с продольным, поперечным или винтообразным расположением слоев мороженого и шоколадной глазурью.

Среди последних разработок подмосковной фирмы «Простор-Л» – усовершенствованная линия ОЛ2В, предназначенная для фасовки мороженого в вафельные и бумажные стаканчики. Производительность линии – до 80 стаканчиков (массой 100 г) в минуту. Линия состоит из фасовочного автомата, скороморозильного аппарата с шок-фростером и люлечного конвейера, а также отводящего транспортера готовой продукции. Все вместе это стоит $60 тыс.

Фирма освоила также изготовление фреоновых фризеров непрерывного действия серии ФР-ПРО производительностью 150-600 л/час. Агрегат обеспечивает процент взбитости до 140%, смесь охлаждается до –5 °С. Фризеры оснащены автономной холодильной установкой, морозильным цилиндром с хромированной поверхностью, обеспечивающей достаточно эффективное фризерование. Цена такого аппарата составляет от $18 тыс. до $23 тыс., что является одним лучших показателей в своем классе. Кстати, фирма проектирует и собирает все линии не заранее, а только под конкретный заказ.

САМОЕ ПОПУЛЯРНОЕ ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ В РОССИИ

  • Линии горизонтальной экструзии для получения мороженого в виде трубочки со взбитой глазурью и тортов типа «Венетта».

    Производители: «Тетра Пак Хойер», «Грам», «Шнобер», «Хензе», завод «Лига».

  • Эскимогенераторы и установки вертикальной экструзии для выпуска глазированного мороженого.

    Производители: «Грам», «Тетра Пак Хойер», «Текно-Айс», завод «Лига».

  • Пресс-формы для автоматов по производству вафельных стаканчиков.

    Производители: «Алькор», завод «Лига».

  • Дозаторы и джемопитатели.

    Производители: «Грам», «Тетра Пак Хойер», «Текно-Айс», завод «Лига», «Катта 27», завод «Универсал» при Коломенском хладокомбинате.

Автор: CБ

Источник: www.mybiz.ru

* The article is more than 8 years old. May contain outdated data


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