Meat semi-finished products, which are also called minced meat, are very popular among consumers. Semi-finished products, which take a few minutes to prepare, are a great alternative to "full" dishes. Meat semi-finished products have certain advantages in production: they help to facilitate and simplify the work of the harvesting shops, reduce the time required to prepare a meat dish or snack, and increase the throughput of the enterprise.
According to statistics, the production and consumption of meat and products based on it in our country is increasing every year. According to forecasts for the next few years, this market will grow by 10% annually. Moreover, experts note the highest growth rates precisely in the segment of chilled meat semi-finished products. About 45% of the total volume of meat produced in our country or brought from abroad goes on sale in raw form. About 30% is used for the preparation of sausages, about 20% is used for the preparation of semi-finished products, and the remaining 5% is used for the production of canned food. Over the past few years, the market for sausages has not grown much, but the segment of semi-finished meat products has steadily increased its share by 10-15% every year. This is due to the fact that consumers are switching from frozen meat products to chilled products (first of all, this applies to the segment of chilled meat, poultry and semi-finished products).
So, what kind of products belong to semi-finished meat products? Chopped meat semi-finished products is a portioned product, which is made from minced meat raw materials (minced meat) with various additives. Typically, such products are classified by processing method. Distinguish between natural, chopped semi-finished products, dumplings. Also, there is often a classification according to the type of meat used - beef, pork, lamb, poultry, rabbit; according to the thermal state - chilled and frozen. Also, experts divide the market for chilled semi-finished products into two separate segments - natural and processed products. In turn, the first segment is divided into several subgroups: large-sized, meat-and-bone, minced, small-sized, portioned, in marinade, meat sets (for example, soup, for barbecue), etc. Cutlet products are processed semi-finished products (this group includes different types of meatballs, meatballs, meatballs and other meat and minced meat processing products). As the main raw material for the preparation of chopped semi-finished products, cervical, scapular and femoral muscles are used, which contain a coarser and more rigid connective tissue. The meat is carefully grinded using special equipment, and then fat, spices and eggs are added to the prepared meat. Consider the cooking technology in more detail. First, frozen meat raw materials in the form of blocks are crushed on a grinder. Sometimes, for the preparation of minced meat, mechanically deboned meat is used, which is prepared on a meat and bone separator. After grinding, minced meat is passed through a spinning top. Then pork bacon, salt, pre-chilled water, spices and other additives are pre-crushed on a top or on special equipment. The whole mass is thoroughly mixed on a meat mixer or using a cutter. The cutter is intended for grinding thin meat soft raw materials and turning it into a homogeneous mass.
Finished stuffing is loaded into the hopper of the machine for forming semi-finished products. It is here that the product is given the desired shape with a specific weight for each serving. For this, depending on the volume of production, a screw or rotor molding system is used. In the machine for molding, cutlets are given a given shape, after which the semi-finished products are laid out on the conveyor belt. Then, depending on the recipe, the products are sent either to the icing machine and then (or immediately) to the breading machine for liquid and dry breading. Finally, the finished semi-finished products are stacked in trolleys and transported to the shock freezing chamber or fed automatically via a conveyor to a spiral freezing machine.
The duration of freezing may vary. For example, the duration of the freezing of a cutlet weighing 85 grams in a shock freezing chamber is two hours, and in a spiral freezer, this time is reduced to 45 minutes. At the last stage, the semi-finished products are packed in plastic bags and cardboard boxes, and then transported to a refrigerating low-temperature chamber.
Recipes for the preparation of various semi-finished products vary depending on the type of product. For example, Moscow cutlets are made from beef meat with the addition of raw lard and wheat bread, onions, pepper, salt and water. The prepared minced meat is given an oval-flattened shape. Pozharsky pork cutlets are prepared from semi-fat pork with the addition of pork melange, wheat bread, salt, pepper and water. Sometimes onions are added there. Amateur cutlets are made from beef carcasses fatty, above average and medium fat content.
The pre-prepared pulp is crushed, mixed with spices, wheat bread and other ingredients, and then a large cutlet is formed from it, which is then breaded in ground breadcrumbs. For the preparation of Kiev cutlets, pork fat content of not more than 30% is used. Beef schnitzel is made from minced beef meat, which has the shape of a flat oval flat cake. The meatballs, which are prepared using the same technology as the Moscow patties, are shaped like a ball. For the production of zraz, ground beef is stuffed with steak of chopped eggs mixed with fried onions and ground breadcrumbs. A rump steak is a slightly chopped piece of meat weighing about 115 grams, which is cut from a thick edge or sirloin moistened with a whipped mixture of fresh eggs, water and salt. Beefsteak is a type of steak from the head of the tenderloin. The chopped beef steak is similar in cooking technology to the cutlet. Knelles are balls of meat, chicken or fish mince with the addition of cream and eggs. Chips are called small round cutlets of minced meat, and meatballs are balls of minced meat or fish with the addition of finely chopped onions, herbs and spices. Kufta is a national dish, similar to meatballs, but made from lamb. Frozen meat semi-finished products also include dumplings, which are made from dough stuffed with minced meat from a mixture of beef and pork in an amount of 55-57% by weight of dumplings with added eggs, onions, pepper, salt, sugar.
The main raw materials for the production of semi-finished products are beef, pork, poultry and fish, less often lamb, horse meat. Double frozen meat and pork with darkened bacon are not allowed for use. Also used are protein preparations of plant and animal origin (soy products, milk proteins, etc.), melange, egg powder, vegetables and other components.
To organize your own production of meat products, first of all, you need to draw up a detailed business plan. When making calculations and making forecasts, one cannot do without marketing research data. You will also have to carefully study the raw materials market, the sales market, and the proposals of equipment suppliers. After analyzing and comparing prices and characteristics of various equipment, it will be possible to select one or more suppliers. In addition, you will need to carry out large-scale work on the selection of regulatory and technical documentation that exists for meat products, or to develop your own specifications for semi-finished meat products if you plan to produce products according to unique recipes. Do not forget to coordinate all the nuances with the SES and go through the certification procedure. However, some equipment suppliers are ready for an additional fee not only to equip your meat processing department, but also to advise on the main issues that you will have in the process.
However, before contacting companies that sell equipment, consult with specialists. Thus, you can protect yourself from unnecessary expenses. The meat-processing or culinary workshop, depending on the planned range of products, should be equipped with the following equipment: cutting presses and band saws for meat preparation, meat grinders for grinding, slicers for cutting semi-finished products, dumplings and cutlet units for forming meat semi-finished products, packaging machines. In addition, if you are also going to produce, for example, dumplings, you will need flour sifters, dough mixers for tough dough, and dumplings. You can’t do without a freezing chamber, storage chambers for raw materials and finished products (they must be separate), a freezing machine, weights, production tables, a meat mixer, a meat grinder, spinning machine, a universal kitchen machine, a sink, cutting boards and knives, bactericidal lamps for disinfection of work surfaces. A meat processing plant with a capacity of about 1000 kg of products per shift covers an area of about 16 square meters. meters. Power consumption is 12.47 kW. Experienced manufacturers advise locating workshops near farms and farms, which will significantly reduce transportation and other costs.
However, if you are not going to organize a cattle slaughtering workshop as well, which, on the one hand, helps to solve the problem of raw material supply and increase profitability, and on the other hand, requires large investments, you can open an independent enterprise for the production of semi-finished meat products. But in the latter case, a lot of effort will have to be made to find suppliers of inexpensive and at the same time high-quality raw materials. Indeed, the quality of your products and the reputation of your company will directly depend on the quality of the latter.
Basements where there is no or limited natural light, rooms in residential buildings or near residential premises, rooms with limited installation capacity, rooms where gas networks are not allowed, with a limited ceiling height (the recommended ceiling height is more than three meters). Also, do not consider premises with complex architectural and planning decisions, rooms where it is impossible to connect to existing flow and exhaust ventilation networks, where the relationships of certain groups of industrial premises with the disposal of food waste are excluded (waste collection containers should be placed from the building where the production takes place, at a distance of no more than 25 meters).
To service equipment in a small enterprise, two or three people per shift are sufficient. In addition to workers in the production, the staffing of your enterprise will include the director of the management company, production director, financial manager, logistics, accountant, chef, chief technologist, quality inspector, human resources specialist, IT engineer, cleaners, and purchasing managers, finished product sales managers.
As you know, the technology for the preparation of meat semi-finished products consists of a number of operations (cutting carcasses, boning and trimming meat, the process of mechanical and refrigeration processing). At each of these stages, quality control is necessary. For example, for the manufacture of semi-finished products, raw materials of doubtful freshness, with the presence of contaminants, injuries, bruising, and darkening of certain sections of muscle tissue, cannot be used. The quality of carcasses is checked by the master, technologist and controller. The separation of muscle and adipose tissue from the bones (deboning) is carried out indoors with an air temperature of not more than 12 ° C. When tendons, fat, blood vessels are separated from the meat, all waste is immediately removed from the workshop, and the lined meat itself is immediately sent for further processing and cooling.
The temperature of the finished semi-finished products should be maintained at less than 8 ° C. To increase the duration of their storage and maintain quality, special packaging is used - vacuum, hermetic, packaging and bookmark in a bag with subsequent sealing, wrapping in a polymer film. The packaging of such products must be airtight, durable, transparent and colorless. At the same time, the necessary product information must be applied to its surface.
The profitability of the workshop for the production of semi-finished meat products is about 30%. However, many manufacturers manage to increase the profitability of their enterprise up to 80% due to a change in the recipe (the introduction of various ingredients that can reduce the amount of minced meat in the product) and / or due to savings on raw materials. Both options are hardly suitable if you are planning a long-term work and care about the reputation of your company.
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