Due to the ever-accelerating pace of life, we have less and less time to perform ordinary household chores, including even those necessary such as cooking. And here culinary come to the rescue. This format of a store or a special department at a store, canteen or cafe, involving the sale of convenience foods and ready-made dishes, appeared in Soviet times, but still does not lose its relevance.
If we consider cooking as a business, then its main advantage is a diverse scale. Cooking can be either an independent institution serving a certain area, or part of a large production or a supermarket. Of course, you can’t do completely without investments, but in the first and second case their size will differ significantly. It is most profitable to open a culinary if you are already selling certain foods - meat, fish, bread and pastry, salads, etc. This format will help to significantly expand the range, attract more customers, increase the profitability of the business and your profit.
Modern culinary, in spite of the preserved (although not so widespread) name, is still noticeably different from Soviet institutions. Over the past twenty years, various metamorphoses have occurred to him. If in the days of the USSR culinary dishes were sold in culinary dishes, “stylized” as home cooking (and in fact borrowed from the dining room menu), then from the mid-90s they were replaced by various salads and snacks. Cookery began to open large stores - super- and hypermarkets, trying to minimize their costs. Culinary products are usually positioned in the low- and mid-price segment, and their products are considered to be a “budget substitute” for home-made food. However, the variation in prices can be quite significant.
Of course, the culinary department at the supermarket is the most profitable option, since in this case there are no costs for the rental of premises and the organization of marketing of finished products. With relatively small investments, this way you can kill several birds with one stone - get rid of products with an expiring shelf life, attract additional customers (with the advent of the culinary department, their flow can increase by 30%) and increase the turnover of the entire store. Typically, this direction brings from 2 to 6% of the total revenue of the company, depending on the location and patency of the store, but an additional factor is triggered: a person who deliberately visits the culinary department in 90% of cases will buy something else from the general assortment.
The assortment of such a department can be several hundred items. Own workshop allows you to put production on stream. By the way, many supermarkets sell not only their own products, but also products from other manufacturers, and no competition is observed. Thus, large department stores can become an additional sales channel for your products, although it will be difficult and expensive to get to their shelves. You will have to pay the so-called entrance bonus - the amount paid by the manufacturer or supplier of the distribution network for including your product in the retailer's assortment. The size of the "entrance ticket" can range from several tens of thousands of rubles to several hundred. Such expenses are beyond the power of novice entrepreneurs.
Cooking: Organizational Moments
First you need to decide on the legal form. You can choose two options - IP or LLC. There is no consensus on which form is preferred. But for newcomers to the business who do not plan to work on a large scale and engage in wholesale sales, the best option is IP. The fundamental difference between these two options lies in the fact that in the event of debt obligations all the personal property of the entrepreneur - IP can be called for their execution. The owner of the LLC is solely responsible for the authorized capital of the legal entity, which is 10 thousand rubles (50% of them may be funds of the project initiator, and the second half - funds of the attracted investor). In addition, when registering an LLC, a legal address is required, which can also be the founder’s home address. In any case, you should not buy an existing LLC, otherwise there is a great risk of taking it already with the debts of the former owner. If you do not have experience in designing an IP or LLC, you can contact the intermediary company for help. However, the IP opening procedure does not require much time and money. As a form of taxation, it is recommended to choose a simplified system (STS).
When registering, you will need to select the OKVED codes suitable for your activity. If you open cooking at a restaurant or cafe, the main code in this case will be code 55.30 Activities of restaurants and cafes. For the sale of products of own production, registration of special “trade” OKVED is not required. But if you plan to sell related and other purchased goods, then select the codes corresponding to the product groups from the Retail Trade classifier section (the first two digits are 52). It will also be useful to indicate the following codes (if in the future you plan to supply your products to other outlets): 55.52 Supply of catering products. The codes should also be included: 08/18/2019 Production of ready-to-eat food products and preparations for their preparation, not included in other groups, 15.81 Production of bread and flour confectionery products of non-durable storage.
In accordance with the Federal Law "On the Sanitary Welfare of the Population", as well as the current Sanitary Rules and Norms for opening a cookery, regardless of its type and format, the following sanitary and epidemiological documents must be obtained:
a plan-program for organizing and conducting production control, which is being developed to comply with sanitary standards and implement mandatory sanitary and epidemiological measures in the production and sale of culinary products;
contracts for regular preventive measures for the disinfestation, disinfection and disinfection;
sanitary and epidemiological conclusions, which are drawn up without fail in the Rospotrebnadzor and are designed to confirm compliance of the enterprise with the existing state sanitary rules, standards, and norms;
a full list of manufactured and (or) sold products (assortment), which, as a rule, is drawn up as an appendix to the sanitary and epidemiological report;
contracts for the export and disposal of fluorescent lamps, the removal of solid waste, organic waste;
contract for disinfection of ventilation and air conditioning systems;
in case of transportation of products from the culinary enterprise - sanitary passports for vehicles;
quality certificates of manufactured products for compliance with applicable state standards;
dry cleaning and laundry service agreement team forms.
Depending on the region and the specifics of the enterprise, other documentation may be required to open a cookery. So, for example, if you are going to make salads familiar to everyone according to a well-known recipe, then first you will need to prepare it in six options, then take it for examination, then get the “Technical Specifications” on it, then add a barcode to this salad. And so for every item from the assortment. The receipt of each document and the conclusion of all contracts is carried out according to certain procedures. You can do this yourself if you have the time and experience. And you can ask for help from one of the many intermediary firms. Their services will cost about 3 thousand rubles per document.
Former canteens are best suited for organizing culinary workshops. If you are lucky enough to get such an area for rent or even ownership, you can significantly save on initial expenses. Such premises were originally intended and used to work with food products, so they comply with basic sanitary standards and fire safety requirements. However, if the dining room was located in this place for a long time, then you still can not do without repair. Sanitary standards have only been tightened over the past few years. For example, if earlier in the shop where they work with food, clean floors and painted walls were enough, now the regulatory authorities check even the water supply, central sewer, bathroom, etc. for safety and serviceability. Not all public catering establishments comply with these requirements, but they cannot be ignored. Be prepared for ongoing inspections, which are carried out at least once a month.
If you decide to simply open a workshop for the production of ready-made dishes and semi-finished products, then there are no special requirements for its location. It may even be located on the outskirts of the city, although logistics costs may be higher. However, if you plan to open your own store, in the territory of which there will be both a production and a department for the sale of finished products, then the requirements are tightened. Moreover, they will concern not only the area of your point (at least 60 square meters), but also its location. In any case, it will be the first floor of a separate building. The best place to start cooking is in the city center near major business centers. Although a residential neighborhood is suitable. The main requirement is a busy street (good traffic, the first line) and preferably proximity to shopping and entertainment centers. It’s not worth opening the culinary in the courtyards of high-rise buildings - you will not be able to attract the necessary number of buyers. Repair, most likely, will have to be done independently, but high ceilings and a high-quality range hood are an additional plus for the option under consideration. The rent depends on the city, area and other additional factors. On average in Russia, renting a room of 60 square meters meters will cost 40-50 thousand rubles a month. Often, owners of premises that were previously used for the same purposes as yours are willing to provide the necessary equipment for an additional fee. For the first time, it can be preferable and more profitable to purchase the necessary equipment from scratch.
When planning the premises, take into account the latest fashion for the so-called “open” culinary workshops, when the production is located behind the glass next to the trading floor, and buyers can watch how the workers of the workshop prepare food. This allows you to increase confidence in the quality of finished products, because your visitors can see for themselves that your workshop meets all the requirements. But technically this is far from always feasible, because if you are going to make and sell ready-made dishes of meat and vegetables, you will need several workshops at once - a meat cutting, storage and processing department for vegetables, a kitchen, etc.
Whether or not to expose the interior work of the kitchen to the public is up to you. But if you plan, in addition to standard dishes, also bake special bread and pita bread, then you can install the tandoor or tone used directly in the trading room on the other side of the counter. Tandoor is a brazier, a special grill for cooking among the peoples of Asia. Cooking pita bread in such an oven is in itself a fascinating sight. Few can resist and not buy a deliciously smelling and still hot bread, cooked right before his eyes.
As for the interior, there are no special requirements for it. The main thing is that your store has a cozy, almost homely atmosphere. Arrange racks and display cases so that visitors can freely familiarize themselves with the entire range. For the purchase of commercial equipment you will need from 100 thousand rubles (you can save on this expense if you make part of the shelves with your own hands).
A significant expense item for the opening of cooking is the purchase of the necessary equipment for the production of finished products. In order to save it, you can rent it, purchase it in a used state or buy it on leasing terms from large companies. All this will reduce the cost of opening cooking. Equipment from the standard list will cost at least $ 100 thousand. This includes tables, ovens, ovens, a microwave oven, combi steamer, coffee machine, mixers, grill, cutters, vegetable cutters, tools, dishes, washing, etc., depending on the range of products. You can not do without a cash register.
Please note: your production and its entire process must fully comply with the above sanitary standards. For example, transportation of culinary, confectionery and semi-finished products should be carried out in metal marked trays with tight-fitting lids, in which certificates with the date and time of manufacture and the date of sale are enclosed. Transportation, storage and sale of raw and ready-to-eat products should be carried out separately. To fulfill this requirement, you must purchase a sufficient amount of refrigeration equipment. If there are three or more workplaces, refrigerators and freezers are installed.
In addition, special sanitary rules have been approved for culinary stores, which stipulate requirements for the design, equipment and maintenance of stores. Food is sold using inventory (forks, shoulder blades, etc.), so you need a sufficient number of cutting boards. Storage and sale of products is carried out in accordance with the established terms and conditions of storage. Cleaning of premises, washing of equipment should be carried out taking into account the general sanitary requirements for public catering establishments.
Even at the planning stage, decide on the choice of dishes that you will offer your customers. And this, in turn, depends on the location of the store and the workshop. For example, next to office buildings, ready-made meals (mainly salads) and grills will go perfectly, and in sleeping areas meat and fish semi-finished products, marinades, sauces, etc. But baked goods will be in demand anytime, anywhere. They buy it for lunch at the office, and on the way home to evening tea.
Important Note: All dishes that you produce must be fresh and of high quality. Any negative feedback will cause great damage to your reputation, and may have more unpleasant consequences. Shelf life is key to cooking at any scale. In the production line, preservatives cannot be dispensed with as dishes, as they still need to be transported to stores and put up on display windows. They will also not be bought immediately, so such dishes should be stored for up to ten days. Buyers prefer products with a short shelf life, so a small cooking, not designed for the flow, will always have regular customers.
Turn your main weakness (low production volume) into an advantage. Offer quality and tasty dishes as close as possible to home cooking. You can enter into the assortment of dishes from national cuisine of different nations. Before drawing up the menu, take a walk around the area where your establishment is located and analyze the possible target audience. The peak of sales during the day directly depends on the location of the culinary. For example, in relation to office areas, an influx of customers can be expected at lunchtime. If your institution is located in a residential neighborhood (the so-called "sleeping area"), then the largest sales will be in the evening. The working hours of your store directly depend on this. The workshop usually works until 18-19 hours, and the store can be closed either at 19-20 hours, or at 22-23 in order to manage to sell as many products as possible.
To work in cooking, sellers are required (one or two per shift, depending on the size of the store) and a cook. If you are going to engage in the production of not only ready-made meals and semi-finished products, but also baking, you will also need a baker. The main requirements for all employees are work experience, as well as the availability of existing sanitary books. Salaries at the culinary store employees are usually not very large. On average, in Russia it is about 15 thousand rubles for sellers and about 20 thousand rubles for cooks. You can keep employees by offering them training (this is especially true, of course, for cooks), as well as an additional bonus - free meals. Of course, such incentives apply only to young graduates of culinary technical schools, so be prepared for staff turnover. If you cannot offer cooks a sufficiently large salary, after training and gaining experience, they will most likely go to other catering establishments, and you will have to search for employees again.
Experts say that you should not count on the fast payback periods of such a business as cooking. All expenses for documentation, debugging production, payment of input bonuses and advertising are compensated for several years, subject to the main condition - stable sales of products. At the same time, despite all the negative forecasts of skeptics who predict a short existence for the culinary industry, the business of manufacturing and selling ready-made food will only grow every year, experts say. На протяжении последних нескольких лет российский рынок кулинарии, по различным оценкам, вырастает в среднем на 30%. В дальнейшем этот рост сохранится, считают участники рынка, потому что количество людей, не желающих готовить, тоже будет увеличиваться. По статистике, основные клиенты кулинарий – это работающие женщины или неженатые мужчины, ведущие здоровый образ жизни. При этом цены на готовые продукты и полуфабрикаты вполне соизмеримы, поэтому до сих готовить блюда самостоятельно оказывается в итоге ненамного дешевле, нежели купить что-нибудь вкусное в кулинарии. Все это создает основу для дальнейшего развития бизнеса.
Дополнительное направление работы – услуги кейтеринга. Так называется отрасль общественного питания, связанная с оказанием услуг на удаленных точках, включающая все предприятия и службы, оказывающие подрядные услуги по организации питания сотрудников компаний и частных лиц в помещении и на выездном обслуживании, а также осуществляющих обслуживание мероприятий различного назначения и розничную продажу готовой кулинарной продукции. То есть в обиходе под кейтерингом подразумевается приготовление пищи и доставка к клиенту.
Для открытия кулинарии потребуется сумма от 500 тысяч рублей. Сроки окупаемости такого бизнеса оцениваются в 12-14 месяцев. Рентабельность этого бизнеса довольно высока, но нужно учитывать фактор сезонности: наибольшим спросом готовые блюда и полуфабрикаты пользуются в осенне-зимний период, а вот весной и летом наблюдается ощутимый спад в продажах.Sysoeva Lilia
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