Types of SausagesThere are several main types of sausages that are produced by most modern domestic manufacturers - both small and large. The most common and inexpensive types of sausages include cooked sausages made from salted minced meat. The most popular variety of this type of sausages in our country is “doctor's sausage”. As the name implies, cooked sausages are cooked at a temperature of about 80 degrees Celsius. Cheap types of sausages contain, in addition to the meat itself, a large amount of soy. Due to the high content in boiled sausage, it has a short shelf life.
Smoked sausages are first boiled and then smoked. If cooked sausages have a uniform consistency and do not contain a large number of spices, then cooked smoked sausages taste more spicy and may consist of small pieces of meat. As additives in the preparation of such types of sausages, milk, cream, bacon, flour and starch are often used.
Half-smoked sausages, according to the recipe, are first fried, then boiled and, finally, smoked. Semi-smoked sausages in their taste are not inferior to cooked smoked. The only difference is that with their heat treatment, weight loss will be significantly less.
Uncooked sausages, unlike other sausages, are not subjected to high-temperature heat treatment and contain the largest number of spices. In the process of cold smoking at a temperature of 20-25 degrees Celsius, the meat is fermented and dehydrated. The ripening of smoked sausages takes about a month (up to 40 days). This period can be reduced by adding acid, which affects the change in pH, and starter cultures (usually yeast microorganisms).
Dry-cured sausages (for example, salami) are made from minced pickled meat, which is smoked in cold smoke for 3-4 days, and then dried at a temperature of 15-18 degrees Celsius.
Finally, there are liver sausages, which are made from meat offal and are the cheapest types of sausages on the Russian market.
Prospects for opening a sausage shop in RussiaThe Russian sausage market, according to research, has been actively developing over the past ten years. The annual growth rate is about 7.5-8.0%. First of all, due to the stable and ever-increasing demand for meat products. On the whole, this segment, which has one of the highest rates of turnover in the Russian food industry, is estimated by entrepreneurs and investors as promising, which explains the high level of competition in it. Domestic products dominate in the domestic market (its share is estimated at 99%). However, after Russia's entry into the WTO, the share of imports of sausages increases every year.
The largest domestic sausage production enterprises are located mostly in the following regions: Central Federal District - 38%, Volga Federal District - 19%, North-West Federal District - 12%. In terms of production, the leading enterprises in Moscow, Moscow and Saratov regions. Moreover, most of them use the capacities at their disposal, on average, by 62%.
Despite the high level of competition in the sausage market, it does not lose its attractiveness for new manufacturing companies operating at the regional level. However, in order for the mini-shop to become successful, it is necessary to observe several basic rules. First, first you need to choose the segment (grocery and price) in which you will work. Today the smoked sausages market is the most promising, the share of which is almost 30%. Secondly, experts advise investing in the development of their own formulations and strict quality control of manufactured products. Thirdly, it’s worth starting with the search for distribution channels and establishing links with grocery stores and retail chains (including super and hypermarkets).
Opening of the sausage shopProduction of sausages is a highly profitable and fast-paced business, which nevertheless has certain nuances and difficulties (like any other food production). Most of the difficulties in organizing it are associated with finding a suitable room for a workshop that would comply with all sanitary rules, and obtaining the necessary permits. So, for example, the building of the former kindergarten, residential premises and public places (rest houses, baths, etc.) will not fit the sausage shop. Its minimum area should be 50 square meters. meters. However, even for a small production of sausages, producing less than one ton of finished products per day, a room with an area of at least two times more is required - from 100 to 250 square meters. meters. If the volume of your production is from one ton of sausage per day, then the workshop area will be at least 300 square meters. meters.
The sausage shop should have a low-temperature chamber for storing raw materials, one refrigerating chamber for ripening minced meat and the second for the finished product. The total area of the workshop is divided into several separate zones: a department for the preparation and processing of raw materials, a raw materials workshop, a workshop for grinding, salting and preparation of minced meat, a thermal department, a warehouse for dry bulk products, a room for storing inventory and other materials, a washing room for recycling containers, storage room for sodium nitrate solution, expedition. In addition, it is necessary to provide a place for the locker room, shower, kitchen and bathroom, storage rooms for sanitary clothing and equipment. The main requirement is that in the process of production of sausages, finished products should not come into contact with raw materials that have not yet been processed.
If you did not have experience in the meat-processing industry, it is best when choosing a room for the workshop to seek the help of an experienced specialist who can evaluate it for compliance with all requirements and prepare a plan for production, storage and office premises.
With an extremely limited budget, you can purchase a candy bar, which is a turnkey mini-workshop. To install a monoblock, you will need a plot of land with all the communications provided. This option is more likely acceptable for rural areas and small production with a functioning farm (for processing its own raw materials). However, as an independent version of the sausage production workshop, it is disadvantageous.
At the next stage, when the premises are found, it is necessary to choose the legal form for your company. This can be either an individual entrepreneur (individual entrepreneur) or an LLC (limited liability company). In addition, you will need to register with the funds (Social Insurance Fund and Pension Fund) and obtain permits to carry out their activities in various services - SES, ROSTEST, the Veterinary and Fire Inspection. According to the "Law on the Protection of Consumer Rights", products that go on sale must have a certificate of conformity and consumer labeling, which can identify the manufacturer. Mandatory certification of food products is carried out in one of two forms: according to the documents of the GOST R Certification System and according to the rules of product certification using a declaration declaration.
Now, according to GOST R certification, as a rule, large productions are held, for which the production and quality control system is fully debugged and whose workers have the necessary qualifications. The difficulty lies in the fact that GOST R stipulates that the enterprise has a production certificate or quality certificate issued by ROSTEST. Obviously, it is almost impossible or very difficult for a small workshop to fulfill all these requirements.
For the GOST R certification system, it is necessary to submit a number of documents: production certificate or quality system, product test report in an accredited laboratory, hygiene certificate, veterinary certificate.
Most small businesses prefer to certify their products through a declaration statement. To do this, you need to contact the same ROSTEST with a statement guaranteeing that the workshop will produce safe products that comply with the regulatory and technical documentation. The following list of documents is attached to the application: copies of constituent documents, lease of production space, a copy of a certificate from the SES on production authorization, a list of produced food products indicating normative and technical documents, copies of normative and technical documentation (NTD) for new types of products agreed with the Trade, SES and registered in VNII Standard, a hygienic certificate as a form of approval of scientific and technical documentation with SES, a document on the ability of the enterprise to control physical and chemical quality indicators or an agreement with an existing laboratory, certificate documents confirming the safety of raw materials and packaging materials, test product samples, product certification agreement, veterinary certificate.
After checking all the submitted documents, the State Supervision Agency carries out a production inspection with the execution of the act and, if the verification is successful, issues a certificate of conformity. The latter may be issued for a period of one or three years. For a new small production, it is more profitable to obtain a certificate of conformity for a period of one year. This time will be enough to finally form your own assortment and debug all processes. The received certificate, by the way, does not exempt you from the quarterly inspection control by ROSTEST, SES and the Veterinary Inspectorate, which involves a thorough inspection of the premises and analysis of samples of manufactured products with verification of their packaging and labeling. If the condition of the selected samples does not comply with the established regulatory documents, the product is subject to confiscation, and for the workshop itself this is fraught with serious losses and troubles until the closing.
For the manufacture of sausages will require special equipment. The main equipment and inventory include boning tables, knives for carcass cutting, boning (separating meat from bones), chopping ingredients, a meat mixer, electric meat grinder (spinning top), cold stores, a meat chopper for cooking sausages and pastes, a sausage stuffing syringe minced casings, a stove with a smoke generator (it is better to give preference to a universal model, on which it is possible to carry out drying, cooking, frying and smoking). It’s not worth saving on equipment, since it is precisely it that determines the productivity of your enterprise. The domestic market presents equipment of both Russian and foreign manufacturers.
When choosing products for the sausage shop, experts recommend focusing primarily on technological indicators, and not on production. Imported cars are much cheaper than domestic ones with similar characteristics, but the latter are practically not inferior to them in terms of reliability. An additional advantage of domestic equipment is the lower cost of spare parts and repairs, if necessary. When choosing equipment, pay attention to the material from which it is made. It should be either stainless steel or food grade aluminum.
For comparison, we give approximate prices for the main equipment of the sausage shop. So, the minimum cost of a refrigerator (2-3 units will be needed) is from 100 thousand rubles, a spinning top - from 60 thousand rubles, a meat mixer for 150 liters - from 35 thousand rubles, a cutter - from 100 thousand rubles, a vacuum syringe - from 35 thousand rubles, a pneumatic clipper - from 20 thousand rubles, a cutter - from 68 thousand rubles, a band saw - from 20 thousand rubles, a heat chamber - from 87 thousand rubles.
Raw materials for sausage shop
It is best to purchase raw materials for the sausage shop from domestic suppliers - wholesale companies and farms. Please note: all products purchased by you and the components of the finished product (up to sausage casings and threads for dressing sausages) must have certificates confirming their origin and quality. To verify the authenticity of the documentation and the quality of the feedstock, you can turn to the services of a merchandising doctor or sanitary doctor who understands all the nuances. When purchasing small quantities of meat from farms, medical examination can also be carried out during production, by concluding an agreement with the veterinary-sanitary laboratory of the regional grocery market. Local laboratory specialists will carry out all the necessary tests and put a stigma.
Many manufacturers prefer to buy raw materials for the production of sausages abroad, which entails additional costs for obtaining a special permit for its import into Russia. To obtain such a permit, it is necessary to apply with a written application to the veterinary service of your region (region or republic) at least thirty days before importation, indicating at the same time the characteristics of the imported products, their place of storage, quarantine, processing, purpose of import, country. It goes without saying that this raw material must have all the necessary documents: a certificate of a general form or a certificate agreed with the veterinary service of the exporting country, agreements (contracts, protocols, conventions) between the veterinary services of our country and the exporting state.
Employees in the sausage shopFor work in the production in the sausage shop you will need employees. First of all, you can not do without the help of a technologist who will deal with product quality control and prepare sausage recipes, butchers for meat boning and carcassing, if you do not plan to purchase already prepared meat, a forwarder, a mechanic, handymen, an accountant. The functions of managers for the purchase of raw materials and marketing of finished products can be taken over for the first time. Modern automated equipment can significantly save on staff. Serving one production line will require no more than five people. But it’s not worth saving on the specialists themselves. Give preference to qualified and experienced workers. Then you can not worry about the quality of your products.
However, producing a quality and tasty product is only half the battle. It is also necessary to establish its marketing. The main sales channels for sausages are grocery stores, kiosks and stalls, super and hyper markets, as well as catering establishments. The most difficult thing is to get on the shelves of super- and hyper-markets, although, for obvious reasons, every manufacturer dreams about it. To do this, you will need to ensure large volumes of supplies, pay for the placement of your goods on the network, and also agree with an authorized person who is responsible for the assortment of the distribution network.
Renting a shelf space, for which a contract with the network is concluded, will cost a decent amount - from 3 to 10 thousand rubles per square meter of calculation, depending on the type of product. In the case of a new product that is still unknown to the consumer, monthly or annual payment for a shelf may be unprofitable. Ideally, it is better to display your sausage products in networks where there is a single contribution for entering the network. However, keep in mind that with the latter option, the option of changing the leadership is possible (which happens in large networks very often), and to prove to the new responsible person that you have already made your single contribution may be problematic and you will have to pay again.
Высокий входной порог, требование о больших объемах и стабильных поставках, отсрочка платежа (минимум 60 дней) – все это значительно усложняет вхождение в сеть для небольших производств. Кроме того, большая часть гипер- и супермаркетов, а также обычных торговых сетей в формате «магазинчик у дома» по наиболее ходовым позициям продуктов питания выпускают товары под собственным брендом. При отсутствии другого варианта можно попробовать предложить им реализовывать вашу продукцию под их собственной торговой маркой. Учитывайте, что если ваш товар все же попадет на полки супермаркета, но окажется неходовым, сеть просто расторгнет договор с вами.
Продвижение продукции колбасного цеха
Большинство мелких цехов предпочитают не вкладывать деньги в продвижение своей продукции, считая, что «хорошая колбаса сама себя продает». This is only partially true. «Сарафанное радио» начинает работать лишь тогда, когда ваш товар и бренд уже довольно известны. А для того, чтобы этого добиться, нужно разработать маркетинговую программу по выводу бренда на рынок. Новички также редко задумываются о необходимости создания торговой марки сразу же после запуска своего производства. Считается, что понятие бренда актуально лишь для крупных компаний. На самом деле, неважно какими объемами вы выпускаете свою продукцию, на каком рынке вы работаете – на региональном или федеральном, насколько большой ваш ассортимент. Ваша репутация, известность и дальнейшее благополучие закладываются с самых первых дней работы. Поэтому столь важно заранее придумать хорошее название для своей компании и заказать разработку ее логотипа профессиональному опытному дизайнеру, разработать название для своей продукции и оформление ее упаковки.
А вот с разработкой рекламных кампаний у профессиональных маркетологов можно и повременить. Сотрудничество с ними обойдется недешево. Тем не менее, при ограниченном бюджете вы вряд ли сможете реализовать все задуманное. А вот выполнить определенный минимум под силу даже вам. Он может включать в себя наружную рекламу, рекламу в печатных изданиях, на радио и телевидении (самый дорогой и не очень эффективный вариант, если вы работаете на региональном уровне), рекламу в местах продаж (наиболее подходящий вид рекламы на данном этапе).
И не стоит доверять утверждениям о том, что при хорошем качестве продукции дальнейшие траты на продвижение уже не нужны. Даже если вы производите и продаете очень вкусную и натуральную колбасу по уникальным бабушкиным рецептам из чистейшего мяса по цене фабричной вареной колбасы, без рекламы в дальнейшем вам все равно не обойтись. Правда, расходы на нее окажутся намного ниже, нежели в случае с колбасной продукцией обычного качества и ценовой категории.
Расходы на колбасное производство
Итак, подсчитаем наши расходы требуемые для открытия колбасного цеха и возможную прибыль. Возьмем для примера мини-цех площадью 50 кв. метров (минимальная площадь) производительностью от 200 кг колбасных изделий за одну восьмичасовую смену. Аренда такого помещения обойдется в сумму от 120-130 тысяч рублей в год, в зависимости от расположения. Для открытия такого малого цеха по производству колбасных изделий потребуется от 550 тысяч рублей. В эту сумму входит оформление и регистрация предприятия, аренда помещения (условно готового к эксплуатации в качестве цеха), покупка оборудования, сырья и заработная плата работникам на первое время. В идеале запас на первые месяцы должен быть, конечно, больше. Специалисты советуют иметь достаточно средств на хотя бы полгода бесперебойной работы цеха при выходе в ноль.
К ежемесячным затратам колбасного цеха относятся расходы на покупку сырья, коммунальные платежи, арендная плата и заработная плата. Впрочем, скорее всего, этот запас вам и не потребуется. Колбасный цех имеет весьма высокую рентабельность, которая может достигать 30 % (впрочем, по факту этот показатель скорее ближе к 25 %). Сроки окупаемости составляют при благоприятных условиях от трех месяцев.
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