If you are looking for an idea to start your own business, you should pay attention to the furniture business. Many entrepreneurs do not consider this option, as they consider the furniture business to be too costly, complex, long to pay back and, most importantly, highly competitive. However, in practice the situation is exactly the opposite.
Russian furniture market
Despite the unfavorable economic situation, the domestic furniture market (primarily soft furniture) is growing steadily. Over the past four years, its annual growth rate averaged 5%. Although literally ten to fifteen years ago, the situation was completely different. Then new furniture was purchased only after the old one goes down. Now our compatriots go for a new sofa or armchair because the existing furniture is out of fashion or out of style. Favorable trends in the furniture segment are due to two main reasons - the growth of the welfare of the population and the presence of international furniture companies.
According to researchers, the share of imported furniture in the Russian market is increasing by 45% every year. The increase is achieved through the supply of components, since it is too expensive to import finished furniture. Logistic costs directly affect the cost of production and, consequently, its market value, too. However, domestic producers do not feel infringed. There are a large number of Russian companies whose furniture is in great demand in a certain price category (mainly low and medium price segments). Again, if we turn to the 90s, then the situation was then exactly the opposite. After the iron curtain was removed, the domestic market was flooded with foreign products. Oddly enough, the Russian furniture companies were helped by the 1998 economic crisis, when consumers simply could not afford to buy foreign furniture and preferred cheaper Russian furniture.
The second economic crisis, which occurred exactly ten years later, again played into the hands of domestic companies, which were able to offer their customers not only the optimal combination of affordable prices and good quality products, but also a common service standard and, just as importantly, the step-by-step availability of furniture salons .
Now the economic situation that has developed in the country is close to the situation in 2008. Manufacturers and sellers of furniture already note a sharp decline in demand for expensive products and an increase in interest in domestic furniture. On the other hand, there is still a construction boom that significantly increases the demand for furniture. Therefore, experts advise entrepreneurs who are just entering this market to rely primarily on domestic manufacturers, while choosing proven brands, good quality (even without designer frills) and affordable prices.
Formats of furniture stores
First of all, you need to decide on the format of your future store. The classification of such outlets is rather arbitrary. But still, within its framework, the following formats can be distinguished:
Standard furniture store. Its range includes an average of 200-250 commodity items, and the area is from 300 to 1000 square meters. meters. The furniture products presented in it cover all the main product groups (furniture for the bedroom, kitchen, study, upholstered furniture, office furniture).
Showroom. This store format is suitable for expensive exclusive furniture, often made or brought to order. Each trading position in such a hall is usually presented in five to six different variations.
Furniture hypermarket. The area of such a store is from 1 square. km, and the assortment has over 1000 sales positions. Here is the widest selection of furniture (usually in the middle price category): hallways, walls, office furniture, kitchen furniture, bedrooms, etc.
Special shop. In stores of this type, furniture is sold for one specific product group (usually in sets): office, bedroom, soft, kitchen, etc.
The format of the furniture store that you choose directly depends on the starting capital and the characteristics of the regional market. Evaluate the level of competition in your city, identify direct and indirect competitors, paying particular attention to the largest chain stores. The mid-price segment is considered to be the most profitable, but here the life of individual retail outlets is significantly complicated by such “monsters” of furniture retail as Ikea, Hoff, etc. We do not consider a furniture hypermarket in this article, since it takes a lot of investment to organize such a business. In this segment there are international and federal networks. The showroom is not the best option in the face of an impending economic crisis. The cost of renting a room for it can be too high with a relatively small selection and considerable prices for furniture. For the most part, the regional networks are represented in the standard format, although federal players are gradually beginning to oppress them. A highly specialized store also has some disadvantages, if we consider it as a business, but they can be leveled by finding your niche and correctly forming the assortment.
Until recently, the main part of the Russian furniture market was upholstered furniture. However, now the situation has changed significantly. As manufacturers and sellers themselves note, in the home segment, the share of sleeping and children's furniture, stationary beds, furniture for the living room is increasing due to a decrease in the segment of upholstered furniture. This is due to changes in the lifestyle of our compatriots. If before that the furniture was more of an aesthetic character and served as an interior decoration, now the consumer prefers simplicity and functionality. But in the office segment and HoReCa (restaurant and hotel business), on the contrary, upholstered furniture is becoming more and more popular: the number of people who prefer to spend their free time outside the home is growing, respectively, the number of establishments is growing, where a person can relax and have a good time .
We draw up a business plan for a furniture store
After you have chosen the format of your future store, you need to conduct some marketing research, determining the market size and target audience. When determining the capacity of the furniture market, consider that the turnover in this segment is comparable to the turnover of building materials. It is estimated at 300 billion rubles (data for 2013). Knowing the capacity of the regional market, you can determine the level of competition in your region.
The next step is to determine how much money will be required to open a furniture store. The main expenses include repair of a retail space, lighting, signboard manufacturing. In the general budget this item of expenditure is up to 45%. How much money you need depends on the location of the premises, its area, condition, selected building materials, store design, etc. The next significant cost item is inventory. Its share in the total budget is also estimated at 40-45%. The amount of expenses depends on the price category, the number of product groups that will be presented to you, and the positions within each group. The remaining part of the budget (15-20%) is working capital, where the rent for two months, as well as the monthly wage fund of your employees, is laid.
Opening a small specialized furniture store will require from 3 million rubles. The payback period of such a project is estimated by experts at least two years.
Documents for opening a furniture store
In order to open a furniture store, you must first choose the appropriate legal form of running your own business. This is the name of the legal status of a business entity and its choice of how to use property. For small businesses, such forms of ownership as IP and LLC are best suited. We will not dwell on the advantages and disadvantages of one form or another. We will only say that for a small furniture store it is enough to register as an individual entrepreneur at the INFS. In this case, you will need to choose a tax form. In addition, please note that in order to carry out your activities you must select OKVED codes. There may be several, but the main only one! The following codes belong to the activities we are considering:
52.12 - Other retail sale in non-specialized stores;
52.44 - Retail sale of furniture and household goods;
08/18/2019 - Retail sale of furniture;
08/18/2019 - Specialized retail trade in office furniture, office equipment;
08/18/2019 - Retail sale of office furniture.
When choosing OKVED codes, focus not only on the types of activities that you plan to engage in right at the beginning of your work, but also those that may be relevant for you in the future. These may include, for example, the following:
36.11 - Manufacture of chairs and other furniture for seating;
36.12 - Furniture manufacture for offices and trade enterprises;
36.13 - Manufacture of kitchen furniture;
36.14 - Manufacture of other furniture;
51.15 - The activities of agents in the wholesale trade of furniture, household goods, hardware, cutlery and other metal products;
08/18/2019 - Activities of agents in the wholesale of household furniture;
08/18/2019 - Wholesale of household furniture, floor coverings and other non-electric appliances;
08/18/2019 - Wholesale of household furniture;
08/18/2019 - Wholesale of office furniture.
If any codes are not included in this list, then subsequently this may cause difficulties in expanding the scope of your activity. You will have to make changes to the registration documents, which is associated with additional inconvenience and loss of time.
The list of documents that are submitted to the registration authority (INFS, located at the location of the IP being opened) includes: an application for state registration of an individual as an individual entrepreneur in the form of P21001, a receipt for payment of state duty for registering an IP, an application for switching to simplified taxation system in the form of No. 26.2-1 (optional), a copy of the applicant’s passport. Documents for registration can be submitted both personally and through a representative by proxy. In addition, you can send all the necessary documents through the Electronic Services service or by mail with a valuable letter with a list of all attached documents. If all the documents meet the requirements, then five days after their submission, you will receive documents on registration of the IP.
In addition, you will need to draw up a number of documents necessary for conducting such entrepreneurial activities:
permission of Rospotrebnadzor employees for placement (this document provides the right to start the facility);
a program for production and sanitary control (opening a furniture store is possible only with this document, which is designed to optimize the process of implementing sanitary rules and norms at the enterprise);
the sanitary and epidemiological report issued for a specific period by the employees of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare determines the compliance of the premises with the current standards and rules that apply to this type of enterprise;
contracts for the export of municipal solid waste and other garbage;
execution of contracts for the conduct of deratization, disinsection, disinfection works, which involves the execution of sanitary work to exterminate pathogens, rodents, insects;
documentation for a furniture store of a regulatory nature;
execution of a contract for the implementation of laundry and dry cleaning services for washing work clothes;
execution of a contract for disinfection of vehicles;
an agreement on regular disinfection and cleaning of ventilation and air conditioning systems;
official agreement for the disposal of fluorescent (mercury-containing) lamps.
Depending on the region and the specifics of the business, other documentation may be required to open a furniture store.
Furniture store room
Even at the time of registration, start looking for a room for a store. It should be located on the first line and in no case in the courtyards between the houses. As for the district, the choice here is not so fundamental. For good and high-quality furniture, people are ready to go to the other end of the city. And in any case, they will need home delivery of purchased furniture, even if the store is located in the same area where they live. When inspecting suitable premises, consider the requirements and standards that are defined by law. So, industrial goods stores can be located in residential, public or detached buildings, in shopping centers and complexes. If the store is located in a residential building, then the entrance to the premises, isolated from residential apartments, must be equipped. Area norms and room heights are not regulated, and it is not recommended to use rooms with a ceiling height of less than 2.5–2.7 m, except for utility rooms.
If you find a room on the ground floor, then take into account that the norms allow the placement of stores in rooms without natural lighting, but the requirements of SanPiN 08/18/2019/18/08/2019.1278-03 "Hygienic requirements for natural, artificial and combined lighting of residential and public buildings ”(approved by the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation on August 18, 2019), where Table No. 2 shows the normalized indicators of natural, artificial and combined lighting depending on the purpose of the room scheny. So, for example, for the trading floors of furniture and sports shops, the minimum level of artificial lighting is 200 lux.
After the premises have been found and the lease agreement has been concluded, it is necessary to obtain the conclusions of the fire inspection and sanitary inspection. The presence of a conclusion of the sanitary-epidemiological service is the main condition for obtaining permission for the functioning of the store by local authorities and executive authorities. To obtain a certificate of fire safety, an entrepreneur needs to install fire systems in the store premises, provide a sufficient number of fire extinguishers, as well as an emergency exit.
An ordinary furniture store does not require any design refinements. Enough fresh repairs and maintaining cleanliness in the trading floor. An additional advantage of furniture stores is the lack of the need to buy additional retail equipment. It will be sufficient to have a counter for the seller and the cash register. The latter, by the way, must be registered. In addition, if you plan to hang a sign on the facade of the building where your store is located (and you cannot do without it), you will need to obtain permission from the landlord. Please note: a sign on the building’s facade containing the name of the company and its type of activity is not an advertisement, and therefore it can be placed without any permissions and agreements. But if your sign is located at a different address, then its placement must be agreed with the authorized body.
Choosing a furniture supplier for a store
When searching for suppliers of goods for your point, consider several basic requirements for future partners and the products they offer. First of all, the furniture you purchase must be of good quality and affordable prices. Pay attention to the reviews about the company you have chosen and the conditions of its work. Reviews can be found on various sites and forums on the Internet. Of course, you shouldn’t blindly trust them, since there are many custom-made ones (that is, they are advertising in nature), but they can still give a certain idea of the supplier. Try to work only with trusted suppliers who have been working in the market for a long time. Do not mess with new firms, even if they offer super-beneficial working conditions. Due to currency fluctuations and consumer preferences, it is best to work with domestic furniture. Goods from suppliers can be taken for further sale or purchased at wholesale prices. Do not forget to ask the supplier for certificates for the products he represents.
Если вы отдали предпочтение специализированному магазину, то поставщиков у вас будет больше, ведь вам нужно будет обеспечить многообразие ассортимента, несмотря на ограниченное количество товарных групп. Конечно, в среднем ценовом сегменте сложно найти оригинальные варианты мебели по дизайну и исполнению. Но есть российские производители, которые выпускают трансформируемую мебель небольшим тиражом, а также различные дизайнерские модели. Цены на такую мебель немного выше среднего, но вы можете предложить желающим выбрать интересующий их вариант по каталогу и привести его под заказ. Такая услуга будет востребована, так как оригинальная и, главное, компактная мебель (трансформируемая и встроенная) пользуется высоким спросом.
Уделите время планировке расстановке мебели в торговом зале. Старайтесь, чтобы все модели хорошо просматривались, а ценники были читаемыми с любого расстояния. На первый взгляд, это мелочи. Но беспорядочное нагромождение мебели затрудняет передвижение людей по магазину и вызывает у них раздражение. Как показывают исследования, когда посетители магазина не находят искомого, они в большинстве случаев тут же покидают в магазин, не обращаясь за помощью к продавцу-консультанту.
Персонал магазина мебели
Кстати, раз уж мы заговорили про продавцов-консультантов, то скажем пару слов о персонале магазина мебели. От него напрямую зависит успех вашего бизнеса и ваша прибыль. Предпочтение стоит отдавать людям, которые имеют опыт работы в этой сфере, но не стоит пренебрегать и новичками. После небольшого обучения, которое вы можете провести самостоятельно, а также тщательного изучения ассортимента магазина, многих из них ничуть не уступают опытным продавцам. Многие мебельные сети проводят целые экзамены для вновь набранных работников, задавая им вопросы по ассортименту, подбору мебели под определенный интерьер, материалам, которые используются по производству, цветовой гамме и т. д. У небольших магазинов нет средств нанимать тренеров, но вы можете самостоятельно контролировать работу продавцов-консультантов, время от времени посещая торговый зал. Как правило, заработная плата продавца складывается из оклада и процентов с продаж, размер который зависит от выполнения установленного плана продаж. Это лучший вариант материального стимулирования работников.
Расходы и прибыль мебельного магазина
Общие затраты на открытие специализированного мебельного магазина составляют от 3, 5 миллионов рублей. Не забудьте заложить в бюджет расходы на рекламу – от нее напрямую зависит ваша прибыль. Для продвижения мебельного магазина подходит печатные средства массовой информации (специализированные издания), радио, телевидение и наружная реклама.
Выручка мебельного магазина в небольшом городе с населением до 500 тысяч человек составляет по разным данным от 2, 5-3 миллионов рублей в месяц. Средняя наценка в мебельном бизнесе на реализуемую продукцию составляет 30-40 %, а чистая рентабельность оценивается специалистами в 7 %. Соответственно, окупить все расходы возможно за 2-2, 5 года.
Распространено мнение, что мебельный бизнес не подвержен такому фактору, как сезонность. На самом деле, оно не соответствует действительности. По результатам продаж отдельных мебельных магазинов и розничных сетей пик продаж приходится на период с сентября на декабрь. Затем наблюдается повышение интереса потребителей к мебели в период с марта по июнь. Лето – это «мертвый сезон» как для мебельного сегмента, так и для других магазинов, в целом.Sysoeva Liliya (c) www.clogicsecure.com - a portal to small business business plans and guides