Minimum starting capital2.5 years
Many people dream of their own hotel business, but do not have enough capital to open a whole hotel or at least a hotel. If you are one of them, then you should pay attention to the format of mini-hotels, popular in the West, and recently in our country, as the so-called guest houses.
Although, strictly speaking, a guest house is not a hotel, it has a lot in common with it. The main differences between them are the number of places (in a hotel house there can be a maximum of ten rooms) and in the living conditions. Guest houses, as a rule, are private households, the owners of which rent them out in their entirety or in separate rooms - rooms. Moreover, in many cases, the owner himself and his family live in the same household, but on a separate floor or in a separate part of the house. The living conditions in the guest house are as close as possible to home, although it is also possible to stylize the interior in one or another style (for example, in the Mediterranean, native Russian, rustic, etc.).
Guest house on a personal plot
The advantages of this business idea are the high demand for such services and the relatively small start-up capital required for its organization. Number of floors and the area of guest houses, the number of rooms and rooms in them is practically unlimited by law. It all depends on what you have. In most cases, guest houses are located in low buildings (from one to three floors). The average area of the guest house is about 300 square meters. meters.
Since initially the main goal of the guest houses was to make a profit by minimizing the costs of maintaining the home ownership and servicing its guests, their legal status is significantly different from the usual hotels. For example, guest houses do not need to assign and coordinate with the regulatory authorities the hotel class (number of stars), they do not have sanitary and epidemiological standards and there are no corresponding requirements. They are taxed at reduced rates compared to regular hotels. The exact amount of tax deductions will directly depend on the size of your guest house. On average, with official registration for taxes, you will spend up to 60 thousand rubles a month.
Of course, for a novice entrepreneur, this amount can be quite tangible. It includes land tax (deducted once every six months), a single tax on imputed income and wage tax, deducted monthly. Add to this the need to regularly file returns with the tax office and keep records. It’s good if you have the relevant knowledge and, just as importantly, free time to do all this on your own. If you don’t have either one, you will have to turn to a specialist for help.
An experienced accountant will save you from possible problems in the future, but his services must be paid. The cost of the services of an incoming accountant will be from 6-12 thousand rubles per month, depending on the region, the size of the business, the form of taxation and other factors. And yet, no matter how great the temptation to save, the work in the white has a number of undoubted advantages.Benefits of registering a guest house
Make cashless payments with your visitors
Install terminals on the territory of your guest house for receiving payments for mobile communications, etc.,
Work with legal entities - suppliers, contractors and agencies.
As your guest house expands, you should consider registering a legal entity, which will allow you to reach the level of a full-fledged hotel. However, in this case, you will already have to go through the certification procedure according to the hotel standard. Standards establish the order and methods of planning to improve the quality of service at all stages of the guest cycle, determine the requirements for means and methods of monitoring and evaluating the quality of service.
The main target installation of quality service systems is aimed at compliance with ICO 9000 standards, which at the interstate level determine quality requirements in accordance with international standards. Certification requires the appropriate material base of the hotel company, qualified personnel who will perform their professional duties, rationally justified organizational and functional structure, clear management of the enterprise as a whole and management of service quality in particular.
In accordance with the Law of the Russian Federation “On certification of products and services”, certification is a set of actions and procedures for the recognition and confirmation of the conformity of services to the presented (established) requirements. These compliance requirements are established by GOST 28681.0-90 “Standardization in the field of tourist and excursion services. The main provisions "; SNiP 08/18/2019-89. “Public buildings and structures”, the Rules for the technical operation of hotels and their equipment, the Law of the Russian Federation “On Security”, the Rules for the provision of hotel services in the Russian Federation, GOST R 50645-94 “Tourist and excursion services. Classification of Hotels ”, Fire Safety Rules in Russia PPB-01-93.
State standard of the Russian Federation (GOST R 50645-94) “Tourist and excursion service. Hotel Classification "defines a hotel as a" company intended for temporary residence ". Its requirements apply to hotels with a capacity of at least ten rooms.
Where is it profitable to open a guest house
Of course, it is most advantageous to open a guest house in regions with a developed tourism industry: on the sea coast (resorts of the Krasnodar Territory), near the federal highway, close to national reserves, etc. However, there is no strict restriction on its location. Even if the locality where you live is not a busy tourist center, but there are hotels in it, therefore, a guest house here may well become a profitable enterprise. The easiest way to purchase or rent a building plot in the countryside.
In many regions, you can find suitable options for almost nothing. True, a lot will have to be invested in construction or repair, arrangement and equipment. If earlier guest houses were a cheap alternative to hotels and did not have a high level of service, now the situation is slowly but surely changing.
Due to reduced tax rates, the lack of the need to hire a large staff and, in general, lower costs compared to hotels, the owners of guest houses can invest more in the design and equipment of rooms, improving the living conditions for vacationers. Before choosing a place to open the guest house, conduct your own marketing research. To do this, you do not need to be a specialist at all, just look at the situation through the eyes of your potential customers.
How to determine the profitability of a guest house
First you need to draw up a detailed business plan for the guest house. Even if you have your own land in a suitable place and a capital building that does not require repairs, even if you plan to get by your own means and not take loans, you still need a business plan, which will become a kind of phased action plan, cost estimates and forecast expected profit.
Make a list of the necessary documents that you need to receive before opening your guest house: a certificate of state registration as an individual entrepreneur, documents confirming your ownership of the house and land, etc. If at this stage you have nothing but money and dreams of your own hotel business, you need to decide whether you will acquire a suitable home ownership or build it from scratch.
There is no single answer to this question. If you have a finished building for a guest house, your costs in the first stage will undoubtedly be lower. However, you still have to spend money (and quite a lot) on repairs, redevelopment, completion, etc. In addition, you must take into account that when remodeling an ordinary residential building as a guest, it is necessary to observe a number of requirements in accordance with building codes and regulations (SNiP), sanitary standards (SanPiN), departmental building codes (BCH).
When building a building from scratch, you can, with the help of an experienced architect, correctly plan the area of the guest house, effectively using every square meter, and avoid many annoying mistakes that will overshadow the lives of your guests. Possible shortcomings include, for example, windows facing the courtyard or a brick wall, a room located near the kitchen, etc.
The number of rooms in guest houses usually does not exceed ten. Moreover, at least half of them should be double rooms with the possibility of organizing an extra bed there (put a bed or cot). The other half of the rooms will be single (preferably also with the possibility of expanding at least one place). It is unprofitable for more people to make rooms: they take up too much space, which is already limited, and are in less demand than cheaper single and double rooms.
Interior features in a mini-hotel
Carefully think over the interior of your mini-hotel, calculate the necessary amount of furniture, household appliances, plumbing, textiles, dishes, cleaning products, etc. Each room should have at least one window (metal-plastic opening for ventilation or normal, but with a window) and a bed (a single bed measuring at least 80 by 190 cm, and a double bed - at least 140 by 190 cm). Windows must be equipped with mosquito nets.
It is recommended to take at least two and a half times more sets of bed linen for the guest house than beds. They change, as a rule, once a week. In addition, you need a large supply of towels and hangers for outerwear. Furniture will also require a wardrobe plus a bedside table or coat rack, a mirror, a table lamp or a floor lamp, a table, a chair and / or a chair. Of household appliances, depending on the "status" and price category of the mini-hotel, as well as on the region, you will need a split system or air conditioning (in budget options - a fan) and a TV for each room.
A shower and a toilet, as a rule, are made in a guest house together - in each room or on the floor. Of course, all these rooms should be equipped with a good ventilation system. Recently, mini-hotels do not install bathtubs with showers, but showers. On the one hand, this option is cheaper and more practical. On the other hand, the life of the shower is shorter - it often fails. Therefore, the option with a bathtub, shower and a closing plastic curtain is more preferable.
You will also need to purchase everything you need for the kitchen:
wall cabinets and shelves,
If possible, it is best to equip the dining room in the guest house separately from the kitchen in an impassable room or in the yard (with an insect canopy). Do not forget about the office space, including the laundry (its services may be paid for your guests).
As for the assistance of a specialist for the preparation of a design project for an interior, it, of course, will not hurt. However, unlike an architect, it is quite possible to do without the services of a designer if you have a taste and a general idea of different styles. Pay attention to little things and give preference to materials that are easy to clean.
For example, as a floor covering in rooms it is more expedient to use not a carpet, but a laminate, cork or wooden covering of non-light colors. Near the bed you can lay a rug or walkway. No matter how beautiful tablecloths and curtains made of natural materials look, it is better to give preference to more practical and durable textiles with the addition of synthetic fibers.
Of particular note is the issue of providing your guests with meals. Most guest houses offer their customers only breakfast, which is included in the room rental price. Typically, such breakfasts include a hot drink (tea, coffee, cocoa), snacks and desserts. For lunch and dinner, the residents of the guest houses go to nearby dining rooms, cafes and restaurants. Sometimes they have at their disposal a kitchen (in the house or in the courtyard - summer) with all the necessary equipment, utensils and appliances (stove, microwave, toaster, blender, etc.). Vacationers can purchase products in stores and cook their own meals in the kitchen.
Guest houses that focus on the "atmosphere of home coziness and comfort" can also offer, in addition to breakfast, lunches and home-cooked dinners. Of course, we are not talking about the choice of dishes from the list, but the owners can take into account the wishes of their guests to the daily menu.
The cost of three meals a day in such a guest house is from 500 rubles per day for an adult and from 250 rubles per day for a child. Experienced entrepreneurs are advised to charge for meals and accommodation separately. Not all of your guests will be in time for lunch or dinner, not everyone will like the food you offer. With separate payment, you give your customers the opportunity to choose and reduce their own worries.
Pros and cons of opening a bar in a guest house
If with food everything is more or less clear, then with alcohol everything will not be so simple. If you intend to sell alcoholic beverages in the guesthouse, you will have to obtain a license to sell alcohol. The license itself costs 40 thousand rubles. But you cannot sell alcohol without a bar or restaurant.
Therefore, it is necessary to conclude an agreement on sanitary maintenance of the premises (up to 50 thousand rubles per year), an agreement on disinsection and derotization (treatment of premises from insects and rodents will cost up to 200 rubles per month), an agreement on garbage removal and disposal of fluorescent lamps. At least another 150-200 thousand rubles will have to be spent on ensuring the supply of alcoholic beverages in your catering establishment.
When your guest house is ready to accept guests, you will need to get expert opinions from various departments (Rospotrebnadzor, Gospodzharnadzor, etc.). Their representatives will visit you regularly with inspections, so it will not be superfluous to get good connections in the checking instances.
One of the most important points is the selection of staff for the guest house. To service a small guest house, you will need a manager, administrator, who will deal with guest accommodation, telephone and internet consulting, booking and selling rooms, a cook, a maid (cleaner).
Of course, at first, part of these duties can be performed independently and with the help of relatives. A guest house is the best option for a family business. In fact, to solve all current issues and ensure the smooth operation of the mini-hotel, no more than 3-4 people will be required, not counting the accountant and the incoming workers (electrician, plumbing, etc.). Make sure that all staff and the owners of the guest house themselves have health books.
The cost of maintaining the guest house
Costs largely depend on the mode of its operation. If your mini-hotel is located in the resort area, then it will work seasonally - from April-May to October. If she will accept guests all year round (and / or you yourself will live in your guest house), immediately lay down the heating costs, which can be up to 100-150 thousand rubles per month, depending on the region, climatic conditions and heating method .
Other monthly expenses include utility bills, telephone and Internet charges (if any), tax deductions, employee salaries (irrelevant for a family business), supplies (toilet paper, napkins, garbage bags, household chemicals, stationery, etc. .).
How to attract guests to your guest house and turn them into regular customers?
Try to provide your guests with maximum comfort. To do this is not at all as difficult as it seems. Take care of the availability of parking space for holidaymakers. It is advisable to equip it with a canopy to protect it from rain and snow.
Parking space can be both free and paid (from 40-50 rubles per day). Take care of the cleanliness of the surrounding area. Это касается не только вашего сада или двора, но и подъезда к нему. Не забывайте чистить подъезд к вашему дому от грязи, льда и снега. При возможности лучше его заасфальтировать.
Приведите в порядок внутренний двор. В идеале его стоит превратить в сад, поставить беседки с мангалами и оборудовать детскую площадку. Закупите спортивный инвентарь и настольные игры. Вы можете как сдавать их в аренду отдыхающим, так и предоставлять бесплатно. Стоит также сформировать пусть и небольшую, но все же библиотеку, а также оформить подписку на основные новостные издания.
Большое значение имеет также и трансфер для ваших постояльцев. Транспортные услуги можно оказывать как самостоятельно, так и с помощью наемного водителя. Но не стоит забывать о том, что если нанятый вами водитель не обладает лицензией на пассажирские перевозки, то нести ответственность за безопасность его пассажиров будете вы, а не он. При наличии собственного транспорта можно также проводить экскурсии для своих постояльцев.
Обратите внимание : согласно Федеральному закону от 27 декабря 2002 года № 184-ФЗ «О техническом регулировании» сертификация туристических услуг носит добровольный характер. Это означает, что при отсутствии сертификатов на проведение экскурсий вы не будете платить какие-либо штрафы или подвергаться другим санкциям. Однако, несмотря на отсутствие требования в законах, большинство туристических компаний все же стараются сертифицировать эту деятельность.
Дело в том, что наличие сертификата вызывает у посетителей гостевого дома больше уверенности в том, что услуги будут оказаны на высоком уровне. Подумайте, что вы можете предложить людям, помимо размещения: рыбалка, охота, уроки верховой езды, баня, бассейн, батуты и т. д. Все эти услуги могут стать дополнительным источником дохода и повысит рентабельность вашего бизнеса. Если вы сами не можете или не успеваете проводить экскурсии для своих постояльцев и организовывать их досуг, договоритесь со сторонними организациями – туристическими агентствами, экскурсоводами, парками развлечений и т. д. Такое сотрудничество будет выгодно обеим сторонам.
Сколько средств нужно для организации гостевого дома
Для мини-гостиницы на пять номеров, которая сможет принять до двенадцати постояльцев одновременно, потребуется минимум 1, 5-2 миллионов рублей. Большая часть этих средств уйдет на ремонт помещений, обеспечение необходимых коммуникаций, покупку мебели и пр. Около 25 % от этой суммы пойдет на благоустройство прилегающей территории. На быструю окупаемость рассчитывать не стоит, особенно если ваш гостевой дом работает сезонно. При загрузке гостевого дома хотя бы на 60 % (что весьма неплохо для начала) расходы можно окупить в течение 2, 5 лет.
Если же вы открываете не просто гостевой дом, а мини-гостиницу на 20 номеров (общее количество мест для проживания – 30 человек) с охраняемой стоянкой и всей необходимой инфраструктурой с общей площадью земельного участка 700 кв. метров, то ваши расходы составят от 15 миллионов рублей. Для обслуживания такого комплекса потребуется штат сотрудников из семи человек. Срок окупаемости такого гостевого дома увеличивается до 3, 5 лет.Sysoeva Lilia
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