Probably there is no person who has not heard about fast food. This word (fast food) in translation from English means "fast food". Thus, almost any dish that does not require long preparation, special serving, or “thoughtful” absorption can be attributed to fast food. These are dishes that are prepared in cafes or fast-moving kiosks (french fries, potatoes with toppings, pizza, shawarma, hot dogs, burgers, etc.), products that can be brought to readiness by simply adding water (soups, cereals, mashed potatoes, instant noodles), and finally, various small snacks that are sold in kiosks and grocery stores (crackers, nuts, chips, popcorn, etc.).
So, the concept of fast food is quite broad and includes almost everything that you can eat on the go, without looking up from your affairs. Due to this specificity, fast food has a bad reputation. It is widely believed that dishes prepared in haste not in a stationary setting, fried in poor quality oil and containing various dubious ingredients (mayonnaise, flavor enhancers, preservatives, dyes, etc.) are very harmful. This opinion has certain grounds. Firstly, fast food dishes are really very high-calorie, which is understandable. Buyers prefer the option of a quick snack, when it is necessary to satisfy hunger, but there is no possibility for a full leisurely meal. In order to get a feeling of satiety with just one dish, it is necessary to use high-calorie foods with maximum energy value. By calorie content, one hot dog will completely replace a regular lunch. Secondly, in order for the buyer to return for the next burger or hot dog, the taste of instant dishes should be as memorable and attractive as possible. There are several ways to enhance the taste, but the simplest and cheapest way is to add more fat and sugar to the dish. Thus, light dressings based on natural yogurt are replaced with much more fat and cheaper mayonnaise, and natural sweeteners and sweeteners are replaced with sugar and molasses. Excess calorie, of course, does not improve our health, therefore, in the wake of the promotion of a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition, fast food has become a symbol of what should be avoided at all costs.
However, the market of instant products and fast food also does not stand still: for any demand, an offer necessarily appears. In our country, this direction is relatively young. The first catering establishments of this format appeared in Russia in the 90s. The “Pioneer” was the McDonald's network. Then the number of such establishments began to grow exponentially. New brands appeared and disappeared, the “snack” franchise business was actively promoted, the format and price category were changing. It seemed that in this direction it was already difficult to invent something new.
However, literally 1-2 years ago, street fast food establishments of a fundamentally new format began to appear in the largest Russian cities - Moscow and St. Petersburg. They are not opened by random entrepreneurs who hire workers, but they themselves perform exclusively administrative functions, far from the very essence of business. The new generation fast food outlets belong to famous chefs, participants in various culinary contests, successful people who, for whatever reason, decided to leave the restaurant business in the field of street fast food and start their own business. True, they themselves are categorically against mixing the concepts of street food and fast food. In their opinion, street food can and should not be inferior in taste and other qualities to restaurant dishes. However, unlike the latter, its use does not require any "rituals", including table setting and the use of cutlery. They equate fast food to “vulgar” hot dogs, shawarma and hamburgers, the purpose of which is to drown out the momentary feeling of hunger to the detriment of their health.
However, one can argue for a long time about the terminology and views, but nevertheless there is a generally accepted definition of street fast food, which is understood as a special format of public catering establishments, which are designed for the prompt preparation of dishes from semi-finished products and their implementation in street kiosks, pavilions, camper vans, mobile counters, trolleys, etc. This definition does not refer to the composition of dishes, but it is assumed that the range of such points includes multi-component fast-food dishes. In addition to the main assortment, you can buy related products here - snacks, chewing gums, chocolates, juices, water, etc. (but any alcohol is prohibited). The share of related products usually does not exceed 25-30%. Thus, the new generation street food outlets (that is what the owners themselves call them) can be safely attributed to the fast food direction, with the only difference being that special attention is paid to the quality and composition of their dishes.
Can such a business be called promising? On the one hand, the main advantage of traditional fast food is its low price. When using additional ingredients and increasing the stages of cooking, the cost of production steadily increases, respectively, the retail price of the finished product also increases. However, as the experience of the pioneers in this business in the capital of our city shows, consumers agree to overpay up to 50% for high-quality and, most importantly, healthy food. Demand for such products is quite high, but the business itself has certain specifics. If you plan to open such a point in your city, analyze the pros and cons in advance, consider the format and carefully choose a place for its location.
Legal aspects of opening a food service outlet
In order to open a hot food outlet, it is necessary to register an individual entrepreneur or LLC, and then proceed to the paperwork for the opening of your street food establishment. You can do registration yourself or you can contact intermediary firms for help. In the latter case, the specialist will collect and execute all the necessary documents for you and will advise you on all working issues. However, this incurs additional costs. In general, it is not difficult to register an LLC and, especially, an individual entrepreneur, even if you are not a professional lawyer. But the services of intermediaries will help save time and nerves.
Regardless of the concept of your culinary project, after registering a company, you will have to deal with the preparation of all the necessary documents for the organization of a fast food outlet. First of all, you will need to obtain permission to engage in entrepreneurial activity and a certificate from the tax inspectorate on the registration of a tax payer. The procedure for obtaining these documents is determined by Federal Law No. 129 “On State Registration of Legal Entities and Individual Entrepreneurs”, the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, and various regional resolutions. It regularly undergoes some changes, including within the same region, so it is recommended to clarify the list of necessary documents and the timing of their submission in the sales department of your city or region.
Although street cafes are autonomous and mobile, they can quite easily change their location, but even a mobile point implies a definite location on a designated retail area. There may be many options for places to accommodate it, but we will consider renting space on the territory of the shopping center. The pros and cons of this option we will consider below. For the operation of such a point, it is necessary to conclude a lease agreement with the owner of the shopping center (and its territory, since your retail point will be located on the street). In the contract, you need to specify in advance the size of the leased area, the cost of the lease, the lease term and the timing of its payment.
Since your activity involves the appearance of waste and garbage in the territory of your catering establishment, you need to decide how you will take them out. This can be done independently, by concluding an agreement with a specific organization, or using the garbage containers of the shopping center (most likely for a certain fee or in limited volumes).
The street food format implies that food needs to be warmed up before serving (in our case, selling). Accordingly, stipulate all conditions for connecting and using electrical energy. In this case, you can either set up a separate energy meter by entering into an agreement with RES, or use the counter of the shopping center, specifying in advance the volumes of energy consumption (the number of devices and their capacity).
Regardless of the size and format of work, any catering company is controlled by the Sanitary and Epidemiological Service, in accordance with Federal Law No. 184-FZ “On Technical Regulation”. To open your point, you will need to obtain appropriate permits and certificates for the provision of such services. Otherwise, you will be fined, and your institution will be quickly covered. Note that you will also need to conduct a sanitary examination of the water used (of course, also at your expense).
All employees of the public catering sector (including hired ones) need to issue medical books. This requirement is spelled out in the Labor Code (Article 213), in a number of federal laws and local legislative acts. It is not difficult to issue a medical book, but it will also take time, which must be taken into account when planning work.
Fire hazardous equipment is used to prepare and heat food, so you will need to make an agreement on fire safety and undergo training.
If you plan to use a cash register in your work, you will need to register it.
The room where the preparation (heating) of food is carried out should be well ventilated. In addition, you will have to regularly disinfect the room. The implementation of these requirements is monitored by Rospotrebnadzor.
Finally, the list of required documents includes quality certificates for all products that you use to prepare your dishes. You can get them from your food suppliers.
The equipment and basic requirements for enterprises belonging to public catering establishments are regulated by the building codes “Design of public catering enterprises” (SNiP 08/18/2019-89).
Rospotrebnadzor is involved in the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, the issuance of relevant certificates, passports, examination results and opinions. Its employees carry out their activities on the basis of the norms of the Federal Law of the Russian Federation “On the Sanitary and Epidemiological Welfare of the Population”, and are also guided by the sanitary and epidemiological rules (including SanPiN 08/18/2019.1079-01). According to the “Requirements for temporary fast-food catering organizations, in the absence of a centralized sewage system and water supply, it is necessary to ensure uninterrupted delivery of water corresponding to the quality of centralized water supply; Your trading pavilion should be equipped with refrigeration equipment for perishable food products, ice cream, drinks; only disposable appliances and utensils are allowed; meals and hot drinks are allowed to be prepared using bottled drinking water; it is necessary to provide for the presence of containers for garbage collection and its timely removal; sanitation must be carried out and personnel must comply with the necessary personal hygiene rules; a toilet for staff is required within a radius of 100 m from the point of sale.
Opening the street food point: work plan
The organization and conduct of business in the field of catering is a rather long process. It can be divided into two main stages. The first, rather large-scale stage involves the solution of all organizational issues. This includes the choice of the location of your point, taking into account the proximity of the location to the main categories of consumers, the purchase of appropriate equipment, the development of recipes and technologies, the organization of the dynamic work of a food service outlet (organization of the production of semi-finished products, food products, the search for reliable suppliers, debugging the implementation process), business development . The second stage involves debugging your work after it starts. It includes actions to improve product quality, expand the assortment, train staff, etc.
At the first stage, you decide on the concept of your work. Your company can be based on a stationary institution or a production workshop. In the first case, cooking at the point of sale itself is not carried out. They are simply warmed up, if necessary they are refined (sauce, spices, fresh vegetables, herbs, etc. are added) and served to customers. In the second case, food is prepared immediately in the trading pavilion. Each option has its pros and cons. In the first case, you don’t have to spend money on additional equipment, you save time on cooking and money on the wages of your employees, because in order to reheat and “serve” ready-made food, you don’t need any special qualifications or a lot of experience. However, the cost of food delivery increases (you need special refrigerated containers, etc.), supply interruptions are possible (for example, in the event of any emergency situation, including traffic jams), or, on the contrary, there may be surplus products (especially in the the beginning of work, when it’s still difficult to accurately predict sales volumes). In addition, the taste of reheated food (and even in the microwave) is unlikely to satisfy gourmets.
The second option has the biggest drawback: preparing a meal directly at the point of sale takes quite a lot of time. Your customers will have to wait a few minutes (from 5 to 15) until their order is completed. Even if they are in no hurry, in winter this expectation will not be very comfortable. There is a third option: in the absence of a base enterprise and its own production workshop, products can be purchased from wholesale suppliers. However, in this case, of course, there is no question of any high quality of dishes, therefore this option does not fit the new concept of street food.
We consider the income and expenses of street food points
Street catering is distinguished by the most affordable prices and does not require large expenses for opening a point. The latter are estimated at over 450 thousand rubles. Moreover, such modest investments do not limit the possibilities for further business expansion. With proper business management, they pay off quickly - during the first 6-9 months of work, depending on the format, location, assortment, pricing policy and other factors. The profitability of a mobile fast food outlet is ten times higher than that of a stationary enterprise.
Unlike a stationary cafe, in the case of street food, renting does not seem to be the biggest expense. The rental price of 1 sq. meters in a place with high traffic on the territory of the shopping center is about 3-5 thousand rubles. But keep in mind that before opening, in addition to starting capital for all expenses, it is necessary to have an “insurance reserve” for paying rent for at least six months and the same reserve for wages for employees, if any.
You will have to spend money on equipment, including its delivery and installation, but these costs will be one-time. The exact list of equipment needed for a mobile fast food outlet depends on the format of your work. In any case, you do not need expensive furniture or sophisticated technological equipment. All expenses will amount to 100 thousand rubles (with the first option - without their own production workshop) and from 300 thousand rubles (in the case of the second option - with the organization of the workshop directly at the point of sale). However, in addition to production equipment, you need a fast food kiosk itself. A used commercial trailer such as Kupava, Tonar will cost 140, 000 rubles or more, depending on size.
Do not forget about the costs of obtaining permits from firefighters, sanitary and epidemiological stations, etc. According to the experience of other entrepreneurs, it will take about 30-50 thousand rubles to draw up all the necessary papers.
To work at the point you will need employees. Even if you plan to work on your own for the first time, you still cannot do without a shift. The salary of such an employee is 10-15 thousand rubles per month (plus various charges that you will pay as an employer). The work schedule is usually irregular and shift. If you work on your own or with only one assistant, you can’t do without a day off, but it’s best to do it in the middle of the week (for example, on Tuesday), since on Saturday and Sunday the revenue will be significantly higher. To service one point, which operates seven days a week from 8-9 am to 19-20 pm, an average of four people will be required. For such work, students who work at almost any time for a relatively small salary are best suited. However, be prepared for high turnover. Even if your cooking technology does not require special training, a frequent change of staff is fraught with material losses, as it will be difficult to control local workers. In order to prevent theft and the passage of money past the cash register, it is worth installing video surveillance on your stationary point.
The issue of advertising and promoting your services deserves special attention. The best way to advertise for any business is word of mouth. But it is especially relevant in this case: a unique offer (high-quality and varied fast food) and the absence of other advertising opportunities, except for outdoor advertising at the location (billboard, pillar) and branding of your trading kiosk. While no one knows about you, you can run a viral ad on the Internet. Feedback on the local forum about “super tasty burgers” will help you significantly increase the awareness of potential buyers about your offer. With a competent approach, advertising costs will not exceed 10 thousand rubles per month. Some entrepreneurs successfully manage without investment in promotion.
The main production costs include the cost of the purchase of semi-finished products and / or products. They make up from 100 thousand rubles. At the same time, the standard mark-up in the field of public catering is at least 100-150%.
Monthly expenses for various needs not mentioned above (for example, the purchase of napkins, packaging bags, etc.) amount to about 10 thousand rubles.
Everything is clear with the expenses, but what about the income? In general, this business is considered to be quickly paid back and highly profitable. The minimum income of one street food outlet with a standard assortment is about 100 thousand rubles per month. The owners of the "conceptual" points do not disclose information about their profit, but according to experts, it is 1.5 times higher than the profit of a regular fast food outlet. However, you must consider the seasonality factor that is inherent in this business. It is best to open in spring or autumn. But in the coldest winter months - January and February - sales are significantly reduced. It would seem that hot hearty snacks are more relevant in the cold, but people are not ready to wait in the cold when their order is ready.
Experienced entrepreneurs name several basic conditions for successful business development. These include competent organization of work points, a high level of service, a rational distribution of labor, which avoids queuing, impeccable product quality and (which is also important) a periodically changing assortment. If all these requirements are met, your casual customers will quickly turn into regular, but even tasty food becomes boring over time. Therefore, do not forget to remove items that are not in great demand from your offer and add new dishes every three months.Sysoeva Lilia
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