Yeast Market Overview
As you know, commercially successful production is usually determined by the demand for products - some things are in demand more, some less, and a number of others are exclusively targeted and in limited quantities.
The demand indicator should be considered when starting your own business, while the priority is the production of the most massly purchased goods: for example, essential goods or simply bought, trendy things such as coffee, fashionable clothes or alcohol. However, it often happens that the production of the final product is economically less profitable than the production of semi-finished products for it.
This is understandable - as a rule, the manufacturer cannot concentrate in his hands the entire production chain of the product, and is mainly engaged in its production from raw materials processed into semi-finished products.
He must first buy these semi-finished products, and then process them with often sophisticated equipment in order to obtain the final product after several transformations. But the manufacturer of semi-finished products in most cases wins: he does not need to buy many types of raw materials for the production of complex goods, his purchase range is limited to two or three, and sometimes, with one name.
In addition, the processing of raw materials into semi-finished products usually does not require sophisticated equipment - processing has always been more profitable than full-fledged production, and the closer the processed object to clean raw materials, the cheaper it is to process it - take, for example, furniture: to produce clean raw materials, you only need to cut wood, for the manufacture of semi-finished products, for example, boards and timber, the most primitive processing at the sawmill is required; an organization engaged in secondary processing - for example, grinding or priming and the manufacture of furniture semi-finished products is already spending slightly more money on equipment than the previous one; but if it comes to the production of furniture itself, the carpentry production will require considerable investments in milling, cutting, drilling and many other machines, not to mention the payment for skilled cabinetmakers. And, of course, the profitability of the sawmill will be significantly higher than the profitability of the furniture company, as well as the company for the production of semi-finished products.
But in addition to the above, one should bear in mind such a factor as the applicability of the manufactured semi-finished product.
For example, releasing roasted coffee beans, from which you can only make coffee, you risk much more than releasing, for example, the same lumber, the range of which is very wide.
If we are not talking about focusing on work with any specific production enterprise (enterprises), which, as you think, will choose the entire mass of products, then attention should be paid to the most widely used and demanded, at least in several areas semi-finished products.
Yeast also belongs to such products: they are used in baking, winemaking, brewing and the production of kvass, etc. drinks, industrial production of alcohol, as well as in medicine and science (in biochemical studies). In addition, there are also special feed and nutritional yeast. So there will be no problems with the sales market.
But the production of yeast is a very simple technologically and fairly quickly paid back process: with proper business management, almost any cost of organizing the production of yeast pays off within a year, a maximum of one and a half or two. So simple yeast is a product, if not ideal, then at least as close to ideal as possible.
Yeast production technology
The process of obtaining marketable yeast includes three main stages: cultivation, isolation from mash, and dehydration.
Biomass cultivation is divided into two processes: obtaining the so-called seed yeast (pure culture) and the cultivation of “marketable” yeast, i.e. intended for sale.
Isolation takes place in two stages: extraction from the mash by flotation and thickening on separators.
The dehydration process consists of several operations: plasmolysis, evaporation and final drying.
The whole yeast production cycle is as follows. A pure yeast culture grown in the laboratory is seeded in a small container (“yeast”), where it is grown periodically, i.e. when a certain mass is reached, the yeast is transferred to further production, and the sterilized yeast is populated by a new batch of microorganisms.
Then the yeast is fed into the inoculator (sowing vat). In it, cultivation is carried out in a continuous way, i.e. when the yeast reaches a certain mass, part of them is transferred to further production, and the second remains in the tank, where fresh nutrient medium is supplied.
The yeast grown in the inoculator is continuously selected in the form of yeast foam and flows by gravity to the flotator, where the foam is separated into mash without yeast and the foam enriched with yeast. The foam is quenched in the inner cup of the flotator.
The resulting suspension with a yeast concentration of 60-80 g / l is taken from it by a pump and fed to thicken to the first separation stage, where part of the mash is separated. The suspension after the first separation stage (already with a density of 150-250 g / l) enters the washing tank, where water is supplied for washing the yeast.
The suspension diluted with water is pumped to the second separation stage, where the yeast thickens to 500-600 g / l.
The finished yeast suspension is pumped to plasmolysis, during which the suspension is heated to 800 ° C, while the yeast shells are destroyed, the contents of the cells flow out and enter the vacuum evaporation unit for evaporation to a concentration of about 1/8 of the dry matter.
One-off plasmolysate is fed to spray drying, where it is dried in a stream of hot air to a moisture content of about 8-10%. Ready dry yeast from the dryer goes to the packaging, where it is usually packaged in paper bags of 20-25 kg, or, after pressing, into smaller containers.
Actually, the whole process of yeast production consists only in the transfer of breeding yeast cells to fermentation tanks with an increasing volume. The volume of the latter in the technological process of the fermentation tank can reach 100 cubic meters. m
Molasses is usually the feedstock for yeast microorganisms - one of the wastes from sugar production; it is also possible to use starch, provided that special enzymes that break down starch to oligosaccharides are added.
Premises, personnel and equipment for the production of yeast
Yeast production refers to food production, therefore, compliance with not only existing construction, but also sanitary norms and rules is mandatory and will be monitored by the relevant (sanitary and epidemiological) regional and state bodies.
According to the current legislation, in addition to standard building standards, the following sanitary standards should be adhered to: SanPiN 08/18/2019.548-96 "Hygienic requirements for the microclimate of industrial premises" and SP 18.08.2019.1327-03 "Hygienic requirements for the organization of technological processes, production equipment and working tools" ( approved by the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation on May 23, 2003).
By and large, these requirements are not so complicated and difficulties can arise only when building a production workshop. If the premises are rented, it is easier to find one that is already fully equipped in accordance with the above standards.
But in addition to sanitary standards, there are also specific technological ones: for example, temperature conditions.
The fact is that the biochemical reactions underlying the production of yeast as well as chemical ones accelerate with increasing temperature (for example, when the temperature is increased by 10 ° C, the reaction rate doubles).
Therefore, it is more profitable to conduct the process at a higher temperature: the productivity of the equipment will be greater. However, the warming up of a workshop that is not properly prepared (i.e., not thermally insulated) is not a rational solution - first the workshop should be equipped to avoid heat, as well as monetary losses.
But be that as it may, the air temperature in the workshop should not exceed 40-42 ° С - in addition to the obvious discomfort that the employees of the enterprise will experience, this temperature contributes to the crowding out of crop yeast with impurities, as a result of which the yield of marketable products decreases.
In general, according to the area of production facilities, we can say that for the described equipment for the production of yeast, the production workshop should be at least 48 x 6 m in size; a pumping station with a size of at least 4 x 12 m, and an energy workshop with a size of at least 4x12 m.
Regarding the staff, it can be said that even relatively small - one and a half tons per shift - yeast production requires quite a lot of human costs: for the described equipment, the number of employees is 47 people, of which technical operators - 10, control operators - 6, workers - 31.
Perhaps this is the only "weak link" in yeast production. Although, on the other hand, if we take into account very cheap production raw materials (molasses or starch), then, in general, it is precisely the wages of workers that will make up the bulk of the cost of yeast.
The described production equipment is the Zhongpro Shandong company’s finished yeast production line, worth 10 million yuan, which in terms of rubles at the current exchange rate is approximately 48.8 million rubles.
The line is fully equipped with units for the production of starch yeast. However, the site of sugar formation from starch can be disabled if it is planned to use molasses as a raw material.
The main type of yeast produced is highly active dry yeast in vacuum packages of 0.5 kg each.
Of course, all the optional settings are easy to change even on your own: the form of packaging, the type of yeast, and much more - with this line you can produce both ordinary bakery, and fodder, and brewer's yeast - up to deactivated food and dietary.
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