Tape-weaving products are included in the group of textile and haberdashery goods. On the market, these products are presented in the widest range, which differs primarily in the composition of the material used and the purpose of the products. The tape is a narrow strip of fabric, which consists of longitudinal and transverse threads, with the processed edges in the form of narrow edges. In addition, tapes can be made from nonwoven materials. The threads in the basis of tapes can be made of various materials - natural and synthetic (natural silk, cotton, half-wool, lurex, polyester, etc.). In the manufacture of elastic bands that stretch, their base is additionally strengthened with rubber threads (from elastane or spandex). On a loom, such a thread is in a taut state, and then, after being removed from it, it is pulled together in length and acquires elasticity. Depending on the type of finished product, the tapes can undergo various finishing operations (dyeing, finishing, bleaching, thermal stabilization, glossing).
There are several common classifications of weaving products. Depending on the purpose, they distinguish decorative, applied (for example, packaging), decorative, clothing and auxiliary, finishing tapes. Decorative and decorative ribbons are used for needlework (for example, embroidery with ribbons), for finishing clothes, linen, for finishing seams of knitwear and garments, for strengthening the edges of clothes. Applied tapes are used in everyday life (for example, keeper, trouser, corsage, linen, bandage, packaging, hat ribbons, curtain tapes). The so-called moire ribbons are made of viscose or lavsan twisted threads. A characteristic moire effect - a pattern similar to a saw cut of a tree, is given to them by decoration at the last stage of production called calendaring. As a result of this procedure, the weft threads are slightly shifted, and wavy patterns appear on the surface of the tape. Clothes-auxiliary tapes have a limited scope of application (for example, for garter belts for stockings or corsets). They are made of synthetic materials with the addition of polyurethane (spandex) threads.
Let us consider in more detail the materials that will be required for the production of weaving products. Not so long ago, tapes were made mainly from natural fibers. As a rule, flax, natural silk and cotton were used as the material. However, now these materials are used very rarely, mainly for the production of special expensive tapes. Threads and yarns from chemical fibers — viscose, polyamide, polyester and acetate — have become widespread. Tapes made of these materials are cheaper, more uniform and resistant to color, better wear resistance. Each type of chemical fiber has its drawbacks, advantages and features. So, for example, viscose yarns, which are used to produce tapes, can vary in structure. They are chopped, crushed, pneumatically connected. Viscose threads have an uneven structure, which complicates their dyeing. The enterprises where weaving products are made use viscose yarn made by centrifugal (the most common) or bobbin method. Acetate ribbons have a glossy surface.
Polyamide (kapron) yarns give abrasive products resistance to abrasion and increased strength. To create tapes with special effects, shades and textures, kapron threads of different structure (monofilament, elastic, textured threads, gentle twist threads of various linear densities) are combined. A variety of types of polyester yarns are used in the form of a tow, as well as textured and complex fibers. Clothing-auxiliary tapes used to be made with rubber, and now spandex and lycra are used to produce them. The production process of tape-weaving products includes three separate stages - the preparation of raw materials, the manufacture of strips and the finishing of finished tape. The preparation of raw materials consists in winding yarn for duck on spools, as well as in preparing the basis for the future product. For the production of tapes, spools up to 80 mm in size are used. The threads come off them perpendicular to the axis of the spool. It is very important to ensure that when winding on the spools, the threads lay evenly and tightly enough. If the tension is poor, the thread will become tangled and tangled, and if it is too tight, it will break. When the thread breaks due to the high tension on the finished tape, a transverse strip is formed or the thread is tightened on the tape, as a result of which, in some areas, its edges can be pulled together. The basis for the production of tapes depends on the type of finished product that will be manufactured on it. So, for example, the basis for cotton tapes is wound onto cylindrical rolls.
In the manufacture of elastic tapes with the addition of spandex or lycra, the winding is used to parallel winding the base on small bulk, and in the case of silk ribbons, on small bulk with small sides. The warp threads should be completely parallel to each other with uniform tension. As we mentioned above, when inhomogeneous tension of individual threads or when they are randomly applied to each other, holes, loops and other defects appear in the finished product.
In the manufacture of certain types of elastic tapes, the elastic thread is additionally wrapped with cotton yarn before being wound on a working bulk. As a rule, at first it is pulled to the limit, and then braided in a stretched form on a spinning machine. After such a braid, it does not return to the original length, but becomes twice as long (compared with the length to the wrapping).
Regardless of the type of material used, tapes are produced on special equipment - tape weaving shuttle (considered obsolete) and shuttleless machines. Shuttle tape looms, unlike ordinary ones, have a special arrangement of batans. Batan is one of the main mechanisms of the loom, which is a swinging part through which the shuttle runs, laying a new thread of duck. In addition, certain modifications are made in the movement system of the shuttles themselves. On a tape loom, it is possible to produce several bands of tapes at the same time (up to a hundred pieces).
In addition, each tape with the edges earned is woven by a separate shuttle. Shuttleless weaving machines are characterized by higher productivity. Their number in the total fleet of machines of a manufacturing enterprise exceeds 90%. However, it will not be possible to completely abandon shuttle machines, since some types of ribbons can be made only with their help (for example, ribbons with smooth and shaped edges, corrugated, lace, embossed, etc.). If you also plan to produce kapron tapes, then you will need an overlock (overcasting machine). Their edges are sheathed or fused.
The production technology of elastic tapes is somewhat different from the usual. They are made with a special weave. At the same time, the elastic thread is not woven into the base of the tape, but is earned in its middle by rolling the weft above and below it. Also, the elastic base of the tape can be formed in a stitching way, when weft threads are wound around the top and bottom of the weft threads, fixing them in a stretched position. By standards, the elongation of a finished elastic tape with smooth edges should be at least 70%, and with wavy - from 80%.
At the last, third, stage, weaving products are given a special look with the help of a special finish, which is similar to the finish that is used in the manufacture of fabrics. In order to make the surface of the finished tape smooth, soft and shiny, the elastic tapes are impregnated with a sizing, dried and calendared on hot rotating drums. After the tape is removed from the drum, it is passed through the aprethole machine (the so-called softener). As a result of steam treatment, it becomes soft, resilient, smooth and even. Tapes made from natural materials are also finished and smoothed on a hot calender, which makes them soft. Conventional chemical fiber tapes do not need special finishes. However, decorative products can be additionally decorated with various drawings, inscriptions made by stamping, partial burning or flocking (applying viscose fiber along the glue contour in an electrostatic field), pleated finish, etc.
At the end, finished tapes are checked for compliance with the requirements of the standards and technical conditions of a particular enterprise. They are visually evaluated by experts for uniformity of color and depth of painting. Although the tape-weaving products are not subdivided into grades, however, they are divided into ten main groups during quality control for external defects. The size, type and number of defects that are permissible on the conditional length of the tape depend on its group. All defects that deviate from the norms are recognized as defective and cut out. Controlled products are cut into predetermined lengths and sent for packaging. Tapes sold per meter are wound around small bobbins and reels. Certain types of ribbons (usually decorative) are wound on a cardboard base in small pieces and packaged in plastic bags.
There are small specialized enterprises that produce products of the same type. For example, polyester packaging tapes. Polyester is a synthetic polyester material in the form of fibers, which is obtained as a result of oil refining.
It has a number of unique properties, which include high strength. Previously, steel tapes were used as packaging material, but now they are gradually being replaced by tapes from polymeric materials. The latter are superior to steel tapes in terms of elasticity, weight, price, resistance to chemical attack and are used in printing, food and wood processing fields, in paper and paperboard factories, etc. Polyester tapes are not related to weaving, as they are not needed for their production looms. And the technology itself is very different from the technology of manufacturing textiles. It includes the following main stages: feeding and drying of the feedstock, loading the feedstock into the extrusion apparatus, forming the tape, performing a series of successive stretching of the tape with simultaneous heating to give it the necessary density and width, applying a relief pattern, marking, winding onto reels, packaging and transportation to the finished goods warehouse.
The production of such a tape, according to equipment suppliers, is quite simple, does not require large production areas and a large staff of workers, does not differ in energy costs. However, it should be borne in mind that competition in this segment due to the relatively small starting capital is very high, so selling finished products will not be as easy as intermediaries promise.
For the production of tape-weaving products, special machines will be required. Although you can buy used equipment at affordable prices, experts still advise you to consider buying (even on credit) more advanced options for new models. They are distinguished by their strength, reliability, high speed, durability and noiselessness (which is especially important if your production is located close to residential buildings). Such machines can be installed independently, and to manage them you do not need to have special skills and experience. With their help, it is possible to produce not only tapes, but also other products for technical and household purposes (slings, belts, etc.). In addition, they can separately purchase a latex filing device and significantly save on the purchase of additional, sometimes very expensive equipment.
You will also need a warping machine, which is used to prepare an elastic and inelastic base for polyester, cotton, polypropylene tapes, scourging and other products. When choosing equipment, pay attention to the presence in the warping machine of automatic control of even winding of the warp. This will significantly reduce the amount of marriage.
Starting your own business for the production of tape-weaving products will require from two million rubles (the minimum cost of used equipment and the rental of industrial and warehouse premises). Although the competition in the market for such products is quite high (mainly due to cheap Chinese products), expensive and high-quality decorative ribbons, which differ in a large number of colors and prints, are in great demand among consumers. Such tapes are used in scrapbooking, for sewing toys, decorating children's clothing, embroidery, etc. They are imported from Europe and America. The production of such tape-weaving products may be a good idea for creating production from scratch or expanding the assortment of an existing enterprise.
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